The effect of macro and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits on their sensory properties and on hedonic liking of older people

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Tsikritzi, Rosi ; Moynihan, Paula J. ; Gosney, Margot A. ; Allen, Victoria J. ; Methven, Lisa (2014)
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Journal: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, volume 94, issue 10, pages 2,040-2,048 (issn: 0022-5142, eissn: 1097-0010)
  • Related identifiers: pmc: PMC4491354, doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6522
  • Subject: nutrition | biscuits | nutrient fortification | sensory | supplement | older people | Research Articles | cookies

BACKGROUND: \ud \ud Under-nutrition in older adults is widespread. Oral nutritional supplement beverages (ONS) are prescribed, yet consumption by older people is often insufficient. A variety of supplement formats may improve nutrient intake. This study developed protein and micro-nutrient fortified biscuits and evaluated their sensory attributes and liking by older people. Two micro-nutrient strategies were taken, to match typical ONS and to customise to the needs of older people.\ud \ud RESULTS: \ud \ud Oat biscuits and gluten-free biscuits developed contained over 12% protein and over 460 kcal 100 g-1 . Two small (40 g) biscuits developed to match ONS provided approximately 40% of an ONS portion of micro-nutrients and 60% of macro-nutrients; however, the portion size was considered realistic whereas the average ONS portion (200 mL) is excessive. Biscuits developed to the needs of older adults provided, on average, 18% of the reference nutrient intake of targeted micro-nutrients. Sensory characteristics were similar between biscuits with and without micro-nutrient fortification, leading to no differences in liking. Fortified oat biscuits were less liked than commercial oat biscuits, partly attributed to flavour imparted by whey protein fortification.\ud \ud CONCLUSION: \ud \ud Macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits could provide an alternative fortified snack to help alleviate malnutrition in older adults.
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