Two-phase flow meter for determining water and solids volumetric flow rate in vertical and inclined solids-in-water flows
Multiphase flow can be defined as the simultaneous flow of a stream of two or more phases. Solids-in-water flow is a multiphase flows where solids and liquid are both present. Due to the density differences of the two phases, the results for such flow is often to have non-uniform profiles of the local volume fraction and local axial velocity for both phases in the flow cross-section. These non-uniform profiles are clearly noticeable in solids-in-water stratified flow with moving bed for inclined and horizontal pipelines. However in many industrial applications, such as oil and gas industry, food industry and mining industry, multiphase flows also exist and it is essentially important to determine the phase concentration and velocity distributions in through the pipe cross-section in order to be able to estimate the accurately the volumetric flow rate for each phase.\ud This thesis describe the development of a novel non-intrusive flow meter that can be used for measuring the local volume fraction distribution and local axial velocity distributions of the continuous and discontinuous phases in highly non-uniform multiphase flows for which the continuous phase is electrically conducting and the discontinuous phase is an insulator. The developed flow meter is based on combining two measurement techniques: the Impedance cross correlation ICC technique and the electromagnetic velocity profiler EVP technique.\ud Impedance cross correlation ICC is a non-invasive technique used to measure the local volume fraction distributions for both phases and the local velocity distribution for the dispersed phase over the pipe cross-section, whilst the electromagnetic velocity profiler EVP technique is used to\ud v\ud measure the local axial velocity profile of the continuous phase through the pipe cross-section. By using these profiles the volumetric flow rates of both phases can be calculated.\ud A number of experiments were carried out in solid-in-water flow in the University of Huddersfield solids-in-water flow loop which has an 80 mm ID and an approximately 3m long working section. ICC and EVP systems were mounted at 1.6 m from the working section inlet which was inclined at 0 and 30 degree to the vertical. The obtained result for the flow parameters including phase volume fraction and velocity profiles and volumetric flow rates, have been compared with reference measurements and error sources of difference with their reference measurements have been identified and investigated.
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