Patents, software and hardware for PID control: an overview and analysis of the current art
- Publisher: IEEE
QA75 | T201 | QA76 | T1
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control provides simplicity, clear functionality, and ease of use. Since the invention of PID control in 1910 (largely owing to Elmer Sperry’s ship autopilot) and the straightforward Ziegler-Nichol (Z-N) tuning rule in 1942, the popularity of PID has grown tremendously. Today, PID is used in more than 90% of practical control systems, ranging from consumer electronics to industrial processes. The wide application of PID has stimulated and sustained the development and patenting of various tuning and associated system identification techniques. For example, sophisticated software packages and ready-made hardware modules are developed to facilitate on-demand tuning and to "get the best out of PID". However, to achieve optimal transient performance, tuning methods vary, and there exists no standardization of PID structures at present. This article provides an overview and analysis of PID patents, commercial software packages, and hardware modules. We also highlight differences between academic research and industrial practice, so as to motivate new research directions in PID technology.