The copper cladding of steel by the submerged arc welding method
The literature available on submerged arc welding of copper and copper alloys, submerged arc welding with strip electrodes, and related areas has been reviewed in depth. Copper cladding of mild steel substrates by deposition from strip electrodes using the submerged arc welding process has been successful. A wide range of parameters, and several fluxes have been investigated. The range of deposit compositions is 66.4% Cu to 95.7% Cu. The weld beads have been metallographically examined using optical and electron microscopy. Equating weld beads to a thermodynamical equivalent of iron has proven to be an accurate and simplified means of handling quantitative data for multicomponent welds. Empirical equations derived using theoretical considerations characterize the weld bead dimensions as functions of the welding parameters and hence composition. The melting rate for strip electrodes is dependent upon the current-voltage product. Weld nugget size is increased by increased thermal transfer efficiencies resulting from stirring which is current dependent. The presence of Fe2O3 in a flux has been demonstrated to diminish electrode melting rate and drastically increase penetration, making flux choice the prime consideration in cladding operations. A theoretical model for welding with strip electrodes and the submerged arc process is presented.
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