Seasonal surface urban energy balance and wintertime stability simulated using three land-surface models in the high-latitude city Helsinki

Article English OPEN
Karsisto, P. ; Fortelius, C. ; Demuzere, M. ; Grimmond, C. Sue B. ; Oleson, K. W. ; Kouznetsov, R. ; Masson, V. ; Järvi, L. (2016)

The performance of three urban land surface models, run in offline mode, with their default external parameters, is evaluated for two distinctly different sites in Helsinki: Torni and Kumpula. The former is a dense city centre site with 22% vegetation, while the latter is a suburban site with over 50% vegetation. At both locations the models are compared against sensible and latent heat fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique, along with snow depth observations. The cold climate experienced by the city causes strong seasonal variations that include snow cover and stable atmospheric conditions. \ud \ud Most of the time the three models are able to account for the differences between the study areas as well as the seasonal and diurnal variability of the energy balance components. However, the performances are not systematic across the modelled components, season and surface type. The net all-wave radiation is well simulated, with the greatest uncertainties related to snowmelt timing, when the fraction of snow cover has a key role, particularly in determining the surface albedo. For the turbulent fluxes, more variation between the models is seen which can partly be explained by the different methods in their calculation and partly by surface parameter values. For the sensible heat flux, simulation of wintertime values was the main problem, which also leads to issues in predicting near-surface stabilities particularly at the dense city centre site. All models have the most difficulties in simulating latent heat flux. This study particularly emphasizes that improvements are needed in the parameterization of anthropogenic heat flux and thermal parameters in winter, snow cover in spring and evapotranspiration in order to improve the surface energy balance modelling in cold climate cities.
  • References (23)
    23 references, page 1 of 3

    Aubinet M, Vesala T, Papale D. 2012. Eddy Covariance: A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis. Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Netherlands.

    Best MJ, Grimmond CSB. 2013. Analysis of the Seasonal Cycle Within the First International Urban Land-Surface Model Comparison. Bound.-Lay. Meteorol. 146: 421 - 446. DOI: 10.1007/s10546-012-9769-7

    Bonan GB, Lawrence PJ, Oleson KW, Levis S, Jung M, Reichstein M, Lawrence DM, Swenson SC. 2011. Improving canopy processes in the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) using global flux fields empirically inferred from FLUXNET data. Biogeosciences 116. DOI: 10.1029/2010jg001593

    Boone A, Masson V, Meyers T, Noilhan J. 2000. The influence of the inclusion of soil freezing on simulations by a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer scheme. J. Appl. Meteorol. 39: 1544 - 1569. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1544:tiotio>;2

    Coutts AM, Beringer J, Tapper NJ. 2007. Impact of increasing urban density on local climate: Spatial and temporal variations in the surface energy balance in Melbourne, Australia. 46: 477 - 493. DOI: 10.1175/jam2462.1

    Demuzere M, Oleson K, Coutts AM, Pigeon G, van Lipzig NPM. 2013. Simulating the surface energy balance over two contrasting urban environments using the Community Land Model Urban. Int. J. Climatol. 33: 3182 - 3205. DOI: 10.1002/joc.3656

    Douville H, Royer JF, Mahfouf JF. 1995. A new snow parameterization for the Meteo-France climate model, Part 1 - Validation in stand-alone experiments. Clim. Dynam. 12: 21 - 35. DOI: 10.1007/bf00208760

    Faroux S, Tchuente ATK, Roujean JL, Masson V, Martin E, Le Moigne P. 2013. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1 km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models. Geosci. Model Dev. 6: 563 - 582. DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-563-2013

    Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best MJ, Baik JJ, Belcher SE, Beringer J, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Coutts A, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kanda M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenhoff ES, Lee SH, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Ooka R, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu YH, Salamanca F, Steeneveld GJ, Tombrou M, Voogt JA, Young DT, Zhang N. 2011. Initial results from Phase 2 of the international urban energy balance model comparison. Int. J. Clim. 31: 244 - 272. DOI: 10.1002/joc.2227

    Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best MJ, Barlow J, Baik JJ, Belcher SE, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenhoff ES, Lee SH, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu YH, Salamanca F, Shashua-Bar L, Steeneveld GJ, Tombrou M, Voogt J, Young D, Zhang N. 2010. The International Urban

  • Metrics
    views in OpenAIRE
    views in local repository
    downloads in local repository

    The information is available from the following content providers:

    From Number Of Views Number Of Downloads
    Central Archive at the University of Reading - IRUS-UK 0 48
Share - Bookmark