The Clinical and Serological Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet in Border Terriers with Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome

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Lowrie, M. ; Garden, O.A. ; Hadjivassiliou, M. ; Harvey, R.J. ; Sanders, D.S. ; Powell, R. ; Garosi, L. (2015)
  • Publisher: Wiley Open Access
  • Journal: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (issn: 0891-6640, vol: 29, pp: 1,564-1,568)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1111/jvim.13643, pmc: PMC4895653
  • Subject: Standard Article | Movement disorder | Gluten hypersensitivity | Standard Articles | Dyskinesia | SMALL ANIMAL | Neurology | Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia
    mesheuropmc: nutritional and metabolic diseases

Background: Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS) is a paroxysmal movement disorder of Border Terriers (BTs). These dogs might respond to a gluten-free diet.\ud \ud Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and serological effect of a gluten-free diet in BTs with CECS.\ud \ud Animals: Six client-owned BTs with clinically confirmed CECS.\ud \ud Methods: Dogs were prospectively recruited that had at least a 6-month history of CECS based on the observed phenomenology (using video) and had exhibited at least 2 separate episodes on different days. Dogs were tested for anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2 IgA) and anti-gliadin (AGA IgG) antibodies in the serum at presentation, and 3, 6, and 9 months after the introduction of a gluten-free diet. Duodenal biopsies were performed in 1 dog.\ud \ud Results: Serum TG2 IgA titers were increased in 6/6 BTs (P = .006) and AGA IgG titers were increased in 5/6 BTs at presentation compared to those of controls (P = .018). After 9 months, there was clinical and serological improvement in all BTs with CECS strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet (5/5). One dog had persistently increased antibody titers. This dog scavenged horse manure. On the strict introduction of a gluten-free diet this dog also had an improved clinical and serological response. The diet-associated improvement was reversible in 2 dogs on completion of the study, both of which suffered a relapse of CECS on the re-introduction of gluten.\ud \ud Conclusions: Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in BTs is a gluten-sensitive movement disorder triggered and perpetuated by gluten and thus responsive to a gluten-free diet.
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