Dynamical control of the mesosphere by orographic and non-orographic gravity wave drag during the extended northern winters of 2006 and 2009

Article English OPEN
McLandress, Charles ; Scinocca, John F. ; Shepherd, Theodore G. ; Reader, M. Catherine ; Manney, Gloria L. (2013)

A version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) that is nudged toward reanalysis data up to 1 hPa is used to examine the impacts of parameterized orographic and non-orographic gravity wave drag (OGWD and NGWD) on the zonal-mean circulation of the mesosphere during the extended northern winters of 2006 and 2009 when there were two large stratospheric sudden warmings. The simulations are compared to Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations of mesospheric temperature, carbon monoxide (CO) and derived zonal winds. The control simulation, which uses both OGWD and NGWD, is shown to be in good agreement with MLS. The impacts of OGWD and NGWD are assessed using simulations in which those sources of wave drag are removed. In the absence of OGWD the mesospheric zonal winds in the months preceding the warmings are too strong, causing increased mesospheric NGWD, which drives excessive downwelling, resulting in overly large lower mesospheric values of CO prior to the warming. NGWD is found to be most important following the warmings when the underlying westerlies are too weak to allow much vertical propagation of the orographic gravity waves to the mesosphere. NGWD is primarily responsible for driving the circulation that results in the descent of CO from the thermosphere following the warmings. Zonal mean mesospheric winds and temperatures in all simulations are shown to be strongly constrained by (i.e. slaved to) the stratosphere. Finally, it is demonstrated that the responses to OGWD and NGWD are non-additive due to their dependence and influence on the background winds and temperatures.
  • References (28)
    28 references, page 1 of 3

    Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553-597, doi:10.1002/ qj.828.

    de Grandpre, J., S. R. Beagley, V. I. Fomichev, E. Griffioen, J. C. McConnell, A. S. Medvedev, and T. G. Shepherd, 2000: Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model. J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D21), 26 475-26 491.

    Eckermann, S. D., and Coauthors, 2009: High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 71, 531-551.

    Haynes, P. H., C. J. Marks, M. E. McIntyre, T. G. Shepherd, and K. P. Shine, 1991: On the ''downward control'' of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 651-678.

    Hitchcock, P., and T. G. Shepherd, 2013: Zonal-mean dynamics of extended recoveries from stratospheric sudden warmings. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 688-707.

    --, --, and G. L. Manney, 2013: Statistical characterization of Arctic polar-night jet oscillation events. J. Climate, 26, 2096- 2116.

    Jin, J. J., and Coauthors, 2009: Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3233-3252, doi:10.5194/ acp-9-3233-2009.

    Jonsson, A. I., J. de Grandpre, V. I. Fomichev, J. C. McConnell, and S. R. Beagley, 2004: Doubled CO2-induced cooling in the middle atmosphere: Photochemical analysis of the ozone radiative feedback. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24103, doi:10.1029/ 2004JD005093.

    Limpasuvan, V., J. H. Richter, Y. J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, and O.-K. Kvissel, 2012: The roles of planetary and gravity waves during a major stratospheric sudden warming as characterized in WACCM. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 78-79, 84-98, doi:10.1016/ j.jastp.2011.03.004.

    Livesey, N. J., and Coauthors, 2011: Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Version 3.3 Level 2 data quality and description document. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Tech. Rep. JPL D-33509, 156 pp. [Available online at http://mls.jpl.nasa.gov/data/v3-3_data_quality_document.pdf.] Manney, G. L., and Coauthors, 2008a: The evolution of the stratopause during the 2006 major warming: Satellite data and assimilated meteorological analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11115, doi:10.1029/2007JD009097.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark