The impact of the newer knowledge of nutrition: nutrition science and nutrition policy, 1900-1939.

Doctoral thesis English OPEN
Petty, Elizabeth Celia

Ideas concerning relationships between diet and health in the UK are\ud traced from the 1904 Comittee on Physical Deterioration to the outbreak\ud of World War II. Archive material is used to describe the often\ud conflicting views of the Medical Research Council and the Ministry of\ud Health and Board of Education concerning the public health applications\ud of nutrition science. In particular, the work of the Ministry of\ud Health's first Advisory Comittee on Nutrition, which was appointed in\ud 1931, is reviewed and evaluated. The debate among public healh\ud practitioners over the nature, cause and extent of the 'nutrition\ud problem' is documented and the role in this debate of official dietary\ud guidelines which appeared during the 1930s, is assessed.\ud The Impact of the Newer Knowledge of Nutrition on welfare feeding policy\ud Is evaluated in the context of the official promotion of milk feeding in\ud schools. In particular, Corry Mann's experimental evidence which was\ud used to endorse this policy, is reconsidered, and it is shown that the\ud NRC view that the trial was proof of the presence in milk of a "growth\ud factor" which produced preferential growth efficiency in adequately fed\ud children , was in error. From a re-evaluation of the evidence it is\ud suggested that the experiment merely recorded catch-up growth in a group\ud of poorly nourished children. The view that there existed an extensive\ud nutritional problem due to poor quality diets is examined and\ud challenged.\ud Both dietary survey data and anthropometric evidence are used to present\ud the case that there was throughout the period studied a widespread\ud problem of underfeeding among the poor and that intervention strategies\ud based on the Newer Knowledge were not an appropriate method of dealing\ud with this problem. This casts doubts on the widely held view that there\ud was a need for nutrition education and suggests that the problem was one of poverty rather than Ignorance. Disaggregated anthropometric data\ud located by the author are analysed according to NCHS standards to assess\ud the prevalence of underfeeding. Significantly higher prevalences of\ud stunting than low weight-for-age exist in all data sets; this phenomenon\ud is considered in detail and low weight-for-age is proposed as the\ud preferred index of malnutrition in 20th Century historical studies.\ud Attention is drawn to the relevance of these studies for the current\ud nutrition and public health debate.
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    40 references, page 1 of 4

    Table 6.27 ComparIson of nutrient Intakes in Group I and Group VI households studied In the Carnegie Survey, 1937 showing current RDAs.

    Table 6.28 Comparison of Nutrient Densities in Group I and Group VI diets studied in the Carnegie Survey, 1937.

    65. see MRC 1500 Fletcher to MacNalty op cit; NRC 2100/1 Fletcher to Lord Dawson 15 April 1931; NRC 1741 Fletcher to M'Gonigle 26 Oct 1931.

    56. McCollum, op.cit. (2nd ed, 1922) p.384.

    60. McCoLlum, op.cit.(3rd ed, 1925) p.530.

    64. L. Findlay and M. Fergusson, 'A Study of Social and Economic Factors in the Causation of Rickets', NRC Spec.

    Rep. Ser. No. 20 (HMSO 1918).

    1. lee Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer to the Ministry of Health, 1919-1920 (HMSO 1920), Appendix IX, p. 389.

    3. NRC Annual Report, 1932-33 (HMSO 1933) pp.10-il.

    8. NRC Annual Report, 1920-21 (HMSO 1921) p.12.

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