Susceptibility profile and metabolic mechanisms involved in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus resistant to DDT and deltamethrin in the Central African Republic

Article, Other literature type English OPEN
Ngoagouni, Carine ; Kamgang, Basile ; Brengues, Cécile ; Yahouedo, Gildas ; Paupy, Christophe ; Nakouné, Emmanuel ; Kazanji, Mirdad ; Chandre, Fabrice (2016)
  • Publisher: BioMed Central
  • Journal: Parasites & Vectors, volume 9 (eissn: 1756-3305)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1887-5, pmc: PMC5121976
  • Subject: Metabolic resistance | qx_600 | Infectious Diseases | Central African Republic | wa_110 | Insecticide resistance | wc_524 | Research | Aedes albopictus | Vectors | Aedes aegypti | Arboviruses | qx_525 | Parasitology
    mesheuropmc: fungi | parasitic diseases | virus diseases

Background Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the Central African Republic (CAR) and studied the mechanisms of resistance. Methods Immature stages were sampled between June and September 2014 in six locations in Bangui (the capital of CAR) for larval and adult bioassays according to WHO standard procedures. We also characterized DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes molecularly and biochemically, including tests for the activities of nonspecific esterases (α and β), mixed-function oxidases, insensitive acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferases. Results Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95), suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israeliensis and to temephos. Bioassays of adults showed susceptibility to propoxur and fenitrothion, except for one Ae. albopictus population that was suspected to be resistant to fenithrothion. None of the Ae. aegypti populations was fully susceptible to DDT. Ae. albopictus presented a similar profile to Ae. aegypti but with a lower mortality rate (41%). Possible resistance to deltamethrin was observed among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, although some were susceptible. No kdr mutations were detected in either species; however, the activity of detoxifying enzymes was higher in most populations than in the susceptible Ae. aegypti strain, confirming decreased susceptibility to DDT and deltamethrin. Conclusion These findings suggested that regular, continuous monitoring of resistance is necessary in order to select the most effective adulticides for arbovirus control in Bangui. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1887-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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