publication . Article . 2014

ELECTING POLICE AND CRIME COMMISSIONERS IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 2012 AS SECOND-ORDER ELECTIONS

Charles Pattie; Ron Johnston;
Open Access
  • Published: 03 Apr 2014 Journal: Representation, volume 50, pages 217-229 (issn: 0034-4893, eissn: 1749-4001, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Informa UK Limited
  • Country: United Kingdom
Abstract
The first elections to the newly created 41 posts of Police and Crime Commissioner in England and Wales were held in November 2012. The results show all the main characteristics of second-order elections. Turnout was low. The two unpopular coalition parties in the national government lost vote share compared to the outcome of the most recent general election, whereas the main opposition party's share increased substantially-as did that of a minor party (UKIP). Labour, Liberal Democrat and UKIP candidates all performed better than expected, the more that they spent on the campaign-although spending was in general low compared to the legal maxima. A number of inde...
Subjects
free text keywords: Sociology and Political Science, National government, Primary election, Liberalism, Opposition (planets), Political science, General election, Turnout, Public administration

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