On the Prophetic and Priestly Authority of Zarathustra

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Hintze, Almut (2012)
  • Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing
  • Subject: 1000
  • References (40)
    40 references, page 1 of 4

    Cf. Max Weber, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, vol. 1, ed.

    Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 440f, and Kurt Rudolph, “Zarathuštra - Priester und Prophet. Neue Aspekte der Zarathuštra- bzw.

    Gāthā-Forschung,” Numen 8 (1961), pp. 81-116, 81f. On the typology of priest and prophet and for further references see Richard Friedli, “Priesthood. I. Religious Studies,” and Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler, “Prophets and Prophecy. I. Religious Studies,” in Religion Past and Present. Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion, vol. 10, ed. Hans Dieter Betz et al (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2011), pp. 364-365 and 441-442; Willard G. Oxtoby, “Priesthood. An Overview,” and Gerald T. Sheppard and William E. Herbrechtsmeier, “Prophecy. An Overview,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York & London: Macmillan, 1987) vol. 11, pp. 528-534 and vol. 12, pp. 8-14.

    See, for instance, Mary Boyce, “Zoroaster the Priest,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 37, 3 (1970), pp. 23-38.

    For a summary of the debate and the main issues involved, see Stephanie W. Jamison, The Rig Veda between Two Worlds (Paris: Collège de France, 2007), pp. 21-24 and 28-31. For references and discussions of the identity of the “I” in the Gathas, see Antonio Panaino, Rite, Parole et Pensée dans l'Avesta Ancient et Récent. Quatre leçons aus Collège de France (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004), pp. 95-105; Almut Hintze, A Zoroastrian Liturgy. The Worship in Seven Chapters (Yasna 35-41) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007), p. 92 fn.95; Stephanie W. Jamison, “Poetic SelfReference in the Rig Veda and the Persona of Zarathustra,” in Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Iranian and Zoroastrian Studies in Honor of Prods Oktor Skjaervø, ed. Carol Altman Bromberg, Nicholas Sims-Williams, and Ursula Sims-Williams 19 (2005), pp. 67-70.

    On the Avesta, see Almut Hintze, “Avestan Literature,” in The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran, ed. Ronald E. Emmerick and Maria Macuch, Companion Volume I to A History of Persian Literature XVII, ed. Ehsan Yarshater (London: Tauris, 2009), p.39f. On hampursagīh in the Pahlavi texts see Andres Hultgård, “Forms and Origins of Iranian Apocalypticism,” in Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala, August 12-17, 1979, ed. D. Hellholm (Tübingen: Mohr, 1983, 2nd ed. 1989), pp. 395-398. In the Avesta, another medium of communication between the human and the divine appears to be the dream, if this is what xvafənā means in Y 30.3, see Martin Schwartz, “Revelations, Theology, and Poetics in the Gathas,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 14 (2000), pp. 1-18.

    Dream visions (xwamn), which Zarduxšt then discusses with Ohrmazd, also play a role in the Middle Persian Zand ī Wahman Yasn 1.4 and 3.12-14, see Carlo Cereti, The Zand ī Wahman Yasn: A Zoroastrian Apocalypse, Rome Oriental Series 70 (Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1995).

    See Mary Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism, vol. 1 (Leiden: Brill, 1975, second impression with corrections 1989), pp. 184ff.

    Cf. Jamaspji Dastur Minocheherji Jamasp-Asana, The Pahlavi Texts Contained in the Codex MK copied in 1322 A.C. by the Scribe Mehr-Āwān Kaī-khūsrū (Bombay: Fort Printing Press, 1913), p. 17. The entire colophon has been transcribed and translated by Arthur Ambartsumian, “On the Manuscripts of the Pahlavi Work “Ayādgār ī Zarērān,” Manuscripta Orientalia 15 (2009), pp. 14-15.

    7. For more YAv. passages which represent Zarathustra as first human to recite the Ahuna Vairya prayer, see Prods O. Skjaervø, “Zarathustra: First Poet-Sacrificer,” in Paitimāna: Essays in Iranian, Indo-European, and Indian Studies in Honor of Hanns-Peter Schmidt, ed. Siamak Adhami (Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 2003) pp. 163-165.

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