1. The distinction between 'writerly' and 'readerly' texts made by Roland Barthes is helpful here. See R. Barthes, S/Z, trans. Richard Miller (New York, 1974)' pp. 3-5 and passim.
2. Most Victorian writing at issue here appeared within periodicals as one item in a succession of pieces which made up a number, but some material - notably fiction such as some novels by Dickens and George Eliot, and long works such as the Oxford English Dictionary and the Dictionary of National Biography - appeared in part-issue, which was confined to the single work in question, the series of parts terminating when the work was completed.
3. See Margaret Beetham, 'Towards a Theory of the Periodical as a Publishing Genre', in Investigating Victorian Journalism, ed. L. Brake, A. Jones and L. Madden (London,1990),p. 21. This article in totality provides an excellent introduction to some of the theoretical questions pertinent to journalism.
4. M.M. Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin, 1981).
5. George Eliot, 'Silly Novels by Lady Novelists,' Westminster Review, 56 (Oct. 1856), pp. 442-61.
6. As the novel, fiction in prose rather than verse, was not a classical form, it remained largely disregarded by the learned; for the genteel, the religious and the puritan it was often characterized as morally dangerous, 'light' reading, or 'misleading' by its display of the possibilities of romance plots. Given our esteem for the nineteenthcentury English novel, its neglect by some contemporary critics such as Matthew Arnold, Walter Pater, Swinburne and Oscar Wilde is noteworthy, as is their marked preference for European fiction, perhaps in part because it was not in their vernacular, and not therefore accessible to the untutored reader.
7. Michel Foucault, 'What is an Author?', in Textual Strategies, ed. Josue V. Harari (Ithaca and London, 1977).
8. By this phrase Darnton is referring to the production circuit of communication, from author-publisher to printers and their suppliers to shippers to booksellers to readers and back to the author. See Robert Darnton, 'What is the History of Books?', in The Kiss of Lamourette (London, 1990), p. 112.
9. For a detailed discussion of the origins of Dickens's use of the partissue format, see Robert L. Patten, Charles Dickens a n d His Publishers (Santa Cruz, 1991).
10. Dickens undercut the system at this part of the circuit as well, by publishing a number of his novels in less than three volumes immediately after serialization.