Integration of Data Quality, Kinetics and Mechanistic Modelling into Toxicological Assessment of Cosmetic Ingredients
In our modern society we are exposed to many natural and synthetic chemicals. The assessment of chemicals with regard to human safety is difficult but nevertheless of high importance. Beside clinical studies, which are restricted to potential pharmaceuticals only, most toxicity data relevant for regulatory decision-making are based on in vivo data. Due to the ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients in the European Union, alternative approaches, such as in vitro and in silico tests, have become more prevalent. \ud \ud In this thesis existing non-testing approaches (i.e. studies without additional experiments) have been extended, e.g. QSAR models, and new non-testing approaches, e.g. in vitro data supported structural alert systems, have been created. The main aspect of the thesis depends on the determination of data quality, improving modelling performance and supporting Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) with definitions of structural alerts and physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, there was a clear focus on the transparency of models, i.e. approaches using algorithmic feature selection, machine learning etc. have been avoided. Furthermore structural alert systems have been written in an understandable and transparent manner. Beside the methodological aspects of this work, cosmetically relevant examples of models have been chosen, e.g. skin penetration and hepatic steatosis. \ud \ud Interpretations of models, as well as the possibility of adjustments and extensions, have been discussed thoroughly. As models usually do not depict reality flawlessly, consensus approaches of various non-testing approaches and in vitro tests should be used to support decision-making in the regulatory context. For example within read-across, it is feasible to use supporting information from QSAR models, docking, in vitro tests etc. By applying a variety of models, results should lead to conclusions being more usable/acceptable within toxicology. \ud \ud Within this thesis (and associated publications) novel methodologies on how to assess and employ statistical data quality and how to screen for potential liver toxicants have been described. Furthermore computational tools, such as models for skin permeability and dermal absorption, have been created.