12 This article uses 'doctrinal' and 'legal positivism' synonymously. I make this association since legal positivism, as a methodology, is interested in questions concerning the description and explanation of law as it is, in empirical observation. For a similar understanding of the relation between the two terms, see Cryer et al, above n 9 at 38; and, Minkkinen above n 6 at 123. For an interesting alternative analysis of the meaning and value of 'doctrinal' methodology see T Hutchinson, 'Doctrinal Research: Researching the Jury' in D Watkins and M Burton (eds), Research Methods in Law (Routledge: Abingdon 2013) 7.
13 Kennedy, above n 3, 37.
14 S Burchill et al, Theories of International Relations (Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke 2009). See also, T Dunne, M Kurki and S Smith, International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2013) and J Steans, L Pettiford, T Diez and I El-Anis, An Introduction to International Relations Theory: Perspectives and Themes (Longman: Harlow 2010).
15 Minkkinen, above n 6, 119, who takes this from Hart. See further HLA Hart, The Concept of Law (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2012).
16 H McCoubrey and N White, Textbook on Jurisprudence (Blackstone Press: Oxford 1999). See also the revised and updated version, J Penner and F Melissaris, McCoubrey and White's Textbook on Jurisprudence (Oxford University Press: Oxford 2012).
40 Ibid., 11.
41 Ibid., 12. See further J Bell, 'Legal Research and the Distinctiveness of Comparative Law' in M Van Hoecke, Methodologies for Legal Research: What Kind of Method for What Kind of Discipline? (Hart: Oxford, 2013) 155.
42 S Ratner and A-M Slaughter, The Methods of International Law (Buffalo: NY, ASIL/Hein 2004). For another overview of 'approaches' to international law, see also Peters, above n 23.
43 Ibid., 3.
44 M Foucault, 'Governmentality' in Power: Volume 3: Essential Works of Foucault 1954-1984 (J Faubion ed; R Hurley, trs) (Penguin: London, 2002) 201.