Internal divisions and security cultures: the impact of Turkish membership on the European Union's foreign and security policies
This thesis aims to assess, with the help of the concept of security\ud culture, the impact that Turkish membership will have on the European Union’s\ud foreign and security policies. It argues that any analysis of the impact of Turkey\ud on the EU’s role as an international actor needs to take into account existing\ud divisions within Europe and within Turkey in terms of security culture. Neither\ud the EU nor Turkey is a monolithic actor when it comes to security\ud understandings and preferences. This thesis argues that, due to the existence\ud of a plurality of security cultures within Europe, EU member states can be\ud grouped according to those supporting the project of a Global Power Europe,\ud Humanitarian Power Europe and Minimum Power Europe. For its part, Turkey\ud has two security cultures, which I have called “Republican” and “neo-\ud Ottomanist”. This thesis argues that an assessment of Turkey’s impact on the\ud role of the EU in the world stage must take into account the three existing\ud normative approaches for the future of the EU (Global, Humanitarian, and\ud Minimum Power Europe) and the characteristics of Turkey’s Republican and\ud Neo-Ottomanist security cultures. After locating where Turkey’s security\ud cultures sit in the broader picture of European security landscape, this thesis\ud concludes that Turkish membership is unlikely to significantly alter the EU’s role\ud in the international system. With or without Turkey, the EU will probably\ud continue to resemble a Humanitarian Power in the world stage. This finding\ud makes an important contribution to the literature by challenging the binary logic\ud that pervades the discussion about Turkish membership in the areas of foreign\ud and security policies and has important implications for EU policy towards\ud Turkey.
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