Mechanical systems in nanometre metrology
Smith, S. T.
The work reported in this thesis was carried out in the School of Engineering Science,\ud University of Warwick, between October 1984 and October 1987.\ud Chapter 1 contains a review of recent developments in instrumentation that require both\ud manipulation and measurement over the range 0.1-100nm. The instruments considered are the\ud Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM), Stylus techniques, X-ray interferometry and x-ray\ud microscopy. The rest of the thesis presents the design and assessment of a novel STM incorporating\ud an X-ray interferometer, an ultra-high precision stylus measuring instrument and an x-ray\ud microscope two axis specimen translation stage.\ud Chapters 2 and 3 present an assessment of different mechanisms for the production of rectilinear\ud motions having parasitic errors of better than mm. Theoretical and experimental investigations\ud into monolithic parallel spring systems based on a notch type hinge and long range slideways\ud based on a polymeric bearing sliding on a polished glass prism are presented. Optimisation\ud of a soleniod magnet force transducer is presented as a drive technique for the former device,\ud whilst a mechanically non-influencing feedscrew drive is described for the latter system.\ud A stylus based measuring instrument, called "Nanosurf 2", that incorporates the polymeric\ud slideway is presented in chapter 4. The performance of this system has been assessed and the\ud results are presented in the following chapter.\ud The linearity and accuracy of an electromagnetically driven, single crystal silicon, monolithic\ud spring make it a suitable for use as the translation mechanism in a Scanning Tunnelling\ud Microscope. Consequently, a three-axis spring has been constructed to generate the translations\ud required for imaging. An X-ray interferometer is built into the probe axis to facilitate absolute\ud calibration. This work is preceeded by an investigation into the generation of complex shapes in\ud this brittle material.\ud Finally, the current status of this work is reported with the presentation of initial experimental\ud results.