Household Transmission of Rotavirus in a Community with Rotavirus Vaccination in Quininde, Ecuador

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Lopman, Ben ; Vicuña, Yosselin ; Salazar, Fabian ; Broncano, Nely ; Esona, Matthew D. ; Sandoval, Carlos ; Gregoricus, Nicole ; Bowen, Michael D. ; Payne, Daniel ; Vaca, Martiza ; Chico, Martha ; Parashar, Umesh ; Cooper, Philip J. (2013)
  • Publisher: Public Library of Science
  • Journal: PLoS ONE (vol: 8)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067763, pmc: PMC3706538
  • Subject: ws_312 | Molecular Epidemiology | Research Article | Biology | Infectious Diseases | wa_110 | wa_30 | Microbiology | Infectious Disease Epidemiology | Medicine | Immunity | wc_501 | Viral Diseases | Infectious Disease Modeling | Gastrointestinal Infections | Epidemiology | Epidemiological Methods | wa_115 | Virology | Clinical Immunology | Rotavirus Infection | Calicivirus Infection | Viral Transmission and Infection | Vaccination

Background\ud \ud We studied the transmission of rotavirus infection in households in peri-urban Ecuador in the vaccination era.\ud \ud Methods\ud \ud Stool samples were collected from household contacts of child rotavirus cases, diarrhea controls and healthy controls following presentation of the index child to health facilities. Rotavirus infection status of contacts was determined by RT-qPCR. We examined factors associated with transmissibility (index-case characteristics) and susceptibility (household-contact characteristics).\ud \ud Results\ud \ud Amongst cases, diarrhea controls and healthy control household contacts, infection attack rates (iAR) were 55%, 8% and 2%, (n = 137, 130, 137) respectively. iARs were higher from index cases with vomiting, and amongst siblings. Disease ARs were higher when the index child was <18 months and had vomiting, with household contact <10 years and those sharing a room with the index case being more susceptible. We found no evidence of asymptomatic infections leading to disease transmission.\ud \ud Conclusion\ud \ud Transmission rates of rotavirus are high in households with an infected child, while background infections are rare. We have identified factors associated with transmission (vomiting/young age of index case) and susceptibility (young age/sharing a room/being a sibling of the index case). Vaccination may lead to indirect benefits by averting episodes or reducing symptoms in vaccinees.
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