Confocal and multiphoton imaging of intracellular Ca2+
- Publisher: Academic Press
This chapter compares the imaging capabilities of a range of systems including multiphoton microscopy in regard to measurements of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> within living cells. In particular, the excitation spectra of popular fluorescent Ca<sup>2+</sup> indicators are shown during 1P and 2P excitation. The strengths and limitations of the current indicators are discussed along with error analysis which highlights the value of matching the Ca<sup>2+</sup> affinity of the dye to a particular aspect of Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling. Finally, the combined emission spectra of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and voltage sensitive dyes are compared to allow the choice of the optimum combination to allow simultaneous intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> and membrane voltage measurement.