Confocal and multiphoton imaging of intracellular Ca2+

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Smith, G. ; Reynolds, M. ; Burton, F.L. ; Kemi, O.J. (2010)

This chapter compares the imaging capabilities of a range of systems including multiphoton microscopy in regard to measurements of intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> within living cells. In particular, the excitation spectra of popular fluorescent Ca<sup>2+</sup> indicators are shown during 1P and 2P excitation. The strengths and limitations of the current indicators are discussed along with error analysis which highlights the value of matching the Ca<sup>2+</sup> affinity of the dye to a particular aspect of Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling. Finally, the combined emission spectra of Ca<sup>2+</sup> and voltage sensitive dyes are compared to allow the choice of the optimum combination to allow simultaneous intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> and membrane voltage measurement.
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