Challenging the Clostridium botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) with a selection of microorganisms by culture methods and extended storage of used vials to assess the loss of sterility

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Turner, Martin ; Singhrao, Simarjit Kaur ; Dennison, Sarah Rachel ; Morton, Leslie Hugh Glyn ; Crean, Stjohn (2015)
  • Publisher: Austin Publishing group

In 2002, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cosmetic use. However, there may be procedural differences between the ways in which a clinician handles, applies and stores the product compared to the suggested guidelines of the manufacturer for handling and storage. To this end vials (N = 12) of BoNT/A were tested for the incidence of microbial contamination followed by challenging the product with a selection of microorganisms by culture methods and by using a calcein release assay to contaminate multi-dose vials at the single concentration used for facial aesthetics. A culture, droplet method was used to count microorganisms challenged with the therapeutic product and to compare viability levels in appropriate controls as well as measuring their lytic properties via an existing cell-free system involving calcein release. Counts of test organisms within the droplets, with the product and the controls without the product were undertaken using Image J software. The result from the incidence of in-vial contamination was inconclusive. Bacterial levels between controls and product challenged groups demonstrated no differences in the growth of viable microorganisms following immediate contact (p = ≥ 0.05). The cell-free calcein release assay demonstrated differences at all time points for low levels of lysis in each case with bacterial lipid extract and were statistically significant (p = 0.011). Although these data appear to correlate with the minimum inhibitory concentration, the additives and vial integrity are also likely to contribute to the maintenance of BoNT/A sterility.
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