DETERMINATION OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION PARAMETERS THROUGH DIRECT GEO-REFERENCING IN A REAL-TIME AERIAL MONITORING SYSTEM
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Rapid responses for emergency situations such as natural disasters or accidents often require geo-spatial information describing the on-going status of the affected area. Such geo-spatial information can be promptly acquired by a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle based multi-sensor system that can monitor the emergent situations in near real-time from the air using several kinds of sensors. Thus, we are in progress of developing such a real-time aerial monitoring system (RAMS) consisting of both aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment acquires the sensory data about the target areas by a low-altitude helicopter system equipped with sensors such as a digital camera and a GPS/IMU system and transmits them to the ground segment through a RF link in real-time. The ground segment, which is a deployable ground station installed on a truck, receives the sensory data and rapidly processes them to generate ortho-images, DEMs, etc. In order to generate geo-spatial information, in this system, exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of the acquired images are obtained through direct geo-referencing because it is difficult to acquire coordinates of ground points in disaster area. The main process, since the data acquisition stage until the measurement of EOP, is discussed as follows. First, at the time of data acquisition, image acquisition time synchronized by GPS time is recorded as part of image file name. Second, the acquired data are then transmitted to the ground segment in real-time. Third, by processing software for ground segment, positions/attitudes of acquired images are calculated through a linear interpolation using the GPS time of the received position/attitude data and images. Finally, the EOPs of images are obtained from position/attitude data by deriving the relationships between a camera coordinate system and a GPS/IMU coordinate system. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the EOP decided by direct geo-referencing in our system. To perform this, we used the precisely calculated EOP through the digital photogrammetry workstation (DPW) as reference data. The results of the evaluation indicate that the accuracy of the EOP acquired by our system is reasonable in comparison with the performance of GPS/IMU system. Also our system can acquire precise multi-sensory data to generate the geo-spatial information in emergency situations. In the near future, we plan to complete the development of the rapid generation system of the ground segment. Our system is expected to be able to acquire the ortho-image and DEM on the damaged area in near real-time. Its performance along with the accuracy of the generated geo-spatial information will also be evaluated and reported in the future work.