METHODS FOR MULTITEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF SATELLITE DATA AIMED AT ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MONITORING
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In the last years the topic of Environmental monitoring has raised a particular importance, also according to minor short-term stability and predictability of climatic events. Facing this situation, often in terms of emergency, involves high and unpredictable costs for public Agencies.
Prevention of damages caused by natural disasters does not regard only weather forecasts, but requires constant attention and practice of monitoring and control of human activity on territory. Practically, the problem is not knowing if and when an event will affect a determined area, but recognizing the possible damages if this event happened, by adopting the adequate measures to reduce them to a minimum, and requiring the necessary tools for a timely intervention. On the other hand, the surveying technologies should be the most possible accurate and updatable in order to guarantee high standards, involving the analysis of a great amount of data. The management of such data requires the integration and calculation systems with specialized software and fast and reliable connection and communication networks.
To solve such requirements, current satellite technology, with recurrent data acquisition for the timely generation of cartographic products updated and coherent to the territorial investigation, offers the possibility to fill the temporal gap between the need of urgent information and official reference information.
Among evolved image processing techniques, Change detection analysis is useful to facilitate individuation of environmental temporal variations, contributing to reduce the users intervention by means of the processes automation and improving in a progressive way the qualitative and quantitative accuracy of results.
The research investigate automatic methods on land cover transformations by means of "Change detection" techniques executable on satellite data that are heterogeneous for spatial and spectral resolution with homogenization and registration in an unique digital information environment.
In the present work we tested some areas of study particularly interesting for the knowledge of the morphology changes of land cover, in particular the area of Fasano in Apulia Region (Italy) and protected area of the Park of Alta Murgia, both of them with frequent episodes of land transformation.
We tested the usability of heterogeneous and freely available images to realize a DEM extraction process to achieve fast and low cost system of analysis.
We used archival stereo-pairs Ikonos and LIDAR survey comparing with Aerial photogrammetric DEM extraction.