Long-term mean vertical velocity measured by MST radar at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E)

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Rao, P. V. ; Vinay Kumar, P. ; Ajay Kumar, M. C. ; Dutta, G. (2009)

MST radars are capable of measuring vertical motion along a vertically directed beam. We present 8 years (1995–2003) averaged profile of vertical velocity in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere over Gadanki (13.5&deg; N, 79.2&deg; E), a tropical station. A downward mid-tropospheric <I><span style="border-top: 1px solid #000; color: #000;">w</span></I> is observed with a reversal of sign around 10 km and a further reversal can also be seen at ~17 km. A significant diurnal and semidiurnal variation in vertical wind is observed for all heights with subsidence during the evening hours. Seasonal variability of vertical wind is also found to be quite appreciable. Vertical velocities have been derived using symmetric pairs of off-vertical beams and a comparison has been made with direct vertical beam measurements. Vertical components estimated from E-W and N-S radial velocities do not match and are also found to have discrepancy with direct measurements. Plausible causes of the discrepancy have been investigated with the help of some case studies. Vertical shear in horizontal wind, gradients in horizontal velocities and echo power imbalance may be some of the factors responsible for the observed discrepancy.
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