Errors and adjustments for single-Alter shielded and unshielded weighing gauge precipitation measurements from WMO-SPICE

Other literature type English OPEN
Kochendorfer, John ; Nitu, Rodica ; Wolff, Mareile ; Mekis, Eva ; Rasmussen, Roy ; Baker, Bruce ; Earle, Michael E. ; Reverdin, Audrey ; Wong, Kai ; Smith, Craig D. ; Yang, Daqing ; Roulet, Yves-Alain ; Buisan, Samuel ; Laine, Timo ; Lee, Gyuwon ; Aceituno, Jose Luis C. ; Alastrué, Javier ; Isaksen, Ketil ; Meyers, Tilden ; Brækkan, Ragnar ; Landolt, Scott ; Jachcik, Al ; Poikonen, Antti (2017)

Although precipitation has been measured for many centuries, precipitation measurements are still beset with significant inaccuracies. Solid precipitation is particularly difficult to measure accurately, and differences between winter-time precipitation measurements from different measurement networks or different regions can exceed 100&thinsp;%. Using precipitation gauge results from the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), errors in precipitation measurement caused by gauge uncertainty, spatial variability in precipitation, hydrometeor type, crystal habit, and wind were quantified. The methods used to calculate gauge catch efficiency and correct known biases are described. Adjustments, in the form of <q>transfer functions</q> that describe catch efficiency as a function of air temperature and wind speed, were derived using measurements from eight separate WMO-SPICE sites for both unshielded and single-Alter shielded weighing precipitation gauges. The use of multiple sites to derive such adjustments makes these results unique and more broadly applicable to other sites with various climatic conditions. In addition, errors associated with the use of a single transfer function to correct gauge undercatch at multiple sites were estimated.
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