Sensitivity of sea-to-air CO2 flux to ecosystem parameters from an adjoint model

Other literature type English OPEN
Tjiputra, J. F. ; Winguth, A. M. E. (2008)

An adjoint model is applied to examine the biophysical factors that control surface pCO<sub>2</sub> in different ocean regions. In the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, the annual cycle of pCO<sub>2</sub> in the model is highly dominated by temperature variability, whereas both the temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are important in the tropical Pacific. In the high-latitude North Atlantic and Southern Oceans, DIC variability mainly drives the annual cycle of surface pCO<sub>2</sub>. Phosphate addition significantly increases the carbon uptake in the tropical and subtropical regions, whereas nitrate addition increases the carbon uptake in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. The carbon uptake is also sensitive to changes in the physiological rate parameters in the ecosystem model in the equatorial Pacific, North Pacific, North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Zooplankton grazing plays a major role in carbon exchange, especially in the HNLC regions. The grazing parameter regulates the phytoplankton biomass at the surface, thus controlling the biological production and the carbon uptake by photosynthesis. In the oligotrophic subtropical regions, the sea-to-air CO<sub>2</sub> flux is sensitive to changes in the phytoplankton exudation rate by altering the flux of regenerated nutrients essential for photosynthesis.
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