Tracking the direct impact of rainfall on groundwater at Mt. Fuji by multiple analyses including microbial DNA

Other literature type English OPEN
Sugiyama, Ayumi ; Masuda, Suguru ; Nagaosa, Kazuyo ; Tsujimura, Maki ; Kato, Kenji (2018)

A total of 2 to 3 million tons of spring water flushes out from the foot of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport, residence time of stored groundwater at Mt. Fuji was estimated at  ∼  15–30 years by the <sup>36</sup>Cl ∕ Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). This range, however, represents the average residence time of groundwater that was mixed before it flushed out. To elucidate the route of groundwater in a given system, we determined signatures of direct impacts of rainfall on groundwater, using microbial, stable isotopic (<i>δ</i><sup>18</sup>O), and chemical analyses (concentration of silica). Chemical analysis of the groundwater gave an average value of the water, which was already mixed with waters from various sources and routes in the subsurface environment. The microbial analysis suggested locations of water origin and paths. <br><br> In situ observation during four rainfall events revealed that the stable oxygen isotopic signature obtained from spring water (at 726 m a.s.l., site SP-0 m) and shallow groundwater (at 150 m a.s.l., site GW-42 m), where the average recharge height from rainfall was 1700–1800 m, became greater than values observed prior to a torrential rain producing more than 300 mm of precipitation. The concentration of silica decreased after this event. In addition, the abundance of <i>Bacteria</i> in spring water increased, suggesting the influence of heavy rain. Such changes did not appear when rainfall was less than 100 mm per event. The above findings indicate a rapid flow of rain through the shallow part of the aquifer, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rain extracting abundant microbes from soil in the studied geologic setting. Interestingly, we found that after the torrential rain, the abundance of <i>Archaea</i> increased in the deep groundwater at site GW-550 m,  ∼  12 km downstream of SP-0 m. However, chemical parameters did not show any change after the event. This suggests that strengthened piston flow caused by the heavy rain transported archaeal particles from the geologic layer along the groundwater route. This finding was supported by changes in constituents of <i>Archaea</i>, dominated by <i>Halobacteriales</i> and <i>Methanobacteriales</i>, which were not seen from other observations. Those two groups of <i>Archaea</i> are believed to be relatively tightly embedded in the geologic layer and were extracted from the environment to the examined groundwater through enforced piston flow. Microbial DNA can thus give information about the groundwater route, which may not be shown by analysis of chemical materials dissolved in the groundwater.
  • References (45)
    45 references, page 1 of 5

    Amann, R. I., Binder, B. J., Olson, R. J., Chisholm, S. W., Devereux, R., and Stahl, D. A.: Combination of 16S ribosomal-RNAtargeted oligonucleotide probes with flow-cytometry for analyzing mixed microbial-populations, Appl. Environ. Microb., 56, 1919-1925, 1990.

    Asano, Y., Uchida, T., and Ohte, N.: Hydrologic and geochemical influences on the dissolved silica concentration in natural water in a steep headwater catchment, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 1973-1989, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01342- X, 2003.

    Beiderwieden, E., Wrzesinsky, T., and Klemm, O.: Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 185-191, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-185-2005, 2005.

    Ben Maamar, S., Aquilina, L., Quaiser, A., Pauwels, H., MichonCoudouel, S., Vergnaud-Ayraud, V., Labasque, T., Roques, C., Abbott, B. W., and Dufresne, A.: Groundwater isolation governs chemistry and microbial community structure along hydrologic flowpaths, Front. Microbiol., 6, 1457, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01457, 2015.

    Bethke, C. M. and Johnson, T. M.: Groundwater age and groundwater age dating, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 36, 121-152, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124210, 2008.

    Burns, D. A., McDonnell, J. J., Hooper, R. P., Peters, N. E., Freer, J. E., Kendall, C., and Beven, K.: Quantifying contributions to storm runoff through end-member analysis and hydrologic measurements at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (Georgia, USA), Hydrol. Process., 15, 1903-1924, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.246, 2001.

    Blume, T., Zehe, E., and Bronstert, A.: Investigation of runoff generation in a pristine, poorly gauged catchment in the Chilean Andes II: Qualitative and quantitative use of tracers at three spatial scales, Hydrol. Process., 22, 3676-3688, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6970, 2008.

    Claesson, M. J., Wang, Q., O'Sullivian, O., Greene-Diniz, R., Cole, J. M., Ross, R. P., and O'Toole, P. W.: Comparison of two next-generation sequencing technologies for resolving highly complex microbiota composition using tandem variable 16S rRNA gene regions, Nucleic Acids Res., 38, e200, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkq873, 2010.

    Davidov, Y. and Jurkevitch, E.: Diversity and evolution of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs), reclassification of Bacteriovorax starrii as Peredibacter starrii gen. nov., comb. nov., and description of the Bacteriovorax-Peredibacter clade as Bacteriovoracaceae fam. nov., Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 54, 1439-1452, https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02978-0, 2004.

    Dunne, T. and Black, R. D.: Partial area contributions to storm runoff in a small New England watershed, Water Resour. Res., 6, 1296-1311, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR006i005p01296, 1970.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark