On hysteresis-like effects in orographically forced models

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Källen, Erland (2011)

Time integrations with an orographically forced high resolution, barotropic model have shown hysteresis-like behaviour. The orography consists of an isolated, mid-latitude hump and the flow is forced with a solid body rotation. For an increasing forcing, a marked instability is found, but it is not connected with a bifurcation, as the model only has one stable equilibrium state. It is found that the instability is coupled to orographic effects and that a slow time evolution of the flow is required for its existence. It is argued that the hysteresis-like effects found here are perhaps more relevant to atmospheric behaviour than bifurcations leading to multiple equilibria.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1985.tb00425.x
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