Energy and nutrients in self-reported diet before and at week 18–22 of pregnancy
- Publisher: CoAction Publishing
Scandinavian Journal of Food & Nutrition,
(issn: 1748-2976, eissn: 1748-2984)
Original Article | folate | dietary intake | vitamin D | conception | 24 h dietary recall | food-frequency questionnaire
Background: A satisfactory nutritional status, as a result of optimal food intake, before conception and during pregnancy, is important for a successful pregnancy. Objective: To evaluate the energy and nutrient intake before conception and at mid-gestation in a group of pregnant women (n=50) in relation to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Design: Pre-pregnant diet was studied by an 84-item food-frequency questionnaire and mid-gestational diet by repeated 24 h dietary recalls. Results: Average requirements (AR) were met for all nutrients except for selenium intake before pregnancy. Absolute intakes were below recommended intake (RI) according to NNR for folate, vitamin D, selenium, vitamin E and iron both before and at mid-gestation. However, intakes were still above the lower intake levels (LI) defined by NNR for almost all women. Twenty-three women were below LI for selenium before pregnancy and five for each of vitamin D and selenium at mid-gestation.
When expressed as nutrient densities (amount of nutrient per energy unit), intakes were below NNR for folate, vitamin D and selenium before pregnancy, and for folate, vitamin D and iron at mid-gestation. Intakes were adjusted for underreporting, estimated to 20% as revealed after comparing energy intake/basal metabolic rate with grouped physical activity level values. Conclusions: The reported food intake satisfied the recommended level of intake according to AR, but when using RI for planning a diet as a reference, folate, vitamin D, selenium and iron intake were insufficient. Most striking were the low levels of folate and vitamin D intake both before pregnancy and at mid-gestation. Keywords: conception; dietary intake; 24 h dietary recall; folate; food-frequency questionnaire; vitamin D