Acoustic thermometry in the Arctic Ocean

Article English OPEN
Mikhalevsky, Peter N. ; Gavrilov, Alexander N. (2001)

Large increases in the temperature of the Atlantic Layer in the Arctic Ocean have been observed since the early to mid-1990s and have continued through to the present. These changes were detected in 1994 and in 1999 with acoustic “sections” using acoustic thermometry. Both icebreaker and submarine CTD sections have confirmed these observations. Calculations of the travel time of acoustic mode 2 for the submarine CTD sections show a linear correlation with the mean temperature of the Atlantic Layer of the section. A cabled-to-shore undersea mooring system of Arctic Ocean observatories is needed to provide real-time year-round observations using conventional as well as acoustic remote sensing techniques.
  • References (17)
    17 references, page 1 of 2

    Carmack, E. C., Aagaard, K., Swift, J. G., Macdonald, R. W., McLaughlin, F. A., Perkin, R. G. & Jones, P. E. 1995: The Arctic is warming: results from the US/Canada 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. In: The abstracts of the XXI General Assembly of IAPSO. Honolulu, HI, August 1995. Pp. 26-27. International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans.

    Dushaw, B., Bold, G., Chiu, C. S., Colosi, J., Cornuelle, B., Desaubies, Y., Dzieciuch, M., Forbes, A., Gaillard, F., Gould, J., Howe, B., Lawrence, M., Lynch, J., Menemenlis, D., Mercer, J., Mikhalevsky, P. N., Munk, W., Nakano, I., Schott, F., Send, U., Spindel, R., Terre, T., Worcester, P. & Wunsch, C. 2001 Observing the ocean in the 2000s: a strategy for the role of acoustic tomography in ocean climate observation. In N. R. Smith & C. J. Koblinsky: Observing the ocean in the 21st century. Melbourne, Australia: Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Project Office.

    EWG (Environmental Working Group) 1997: Joint U.S.- Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (CD-rom). Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

    Gavrilov, A. N. & Mikhalevsky, P. N. 1995: Modeling an acoustic response to long-term variations of water and ice characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. Proceedings of IEEE Oceans '95. Vol. 1. Pp. 247-253. San Diego, CA: IEEE.

    Gavrilov, A. N., & Mikhalevsky, P. N. 2001: Mode coupling effects in acoustic thermometry of the Arctic Ocean. In M. Taroudakis & G. Makrakis (eds.): Inverse problems in underwater acoustics. Pp. 105-126. New York: Springer.

    Grotefendt, K., Logemann, K., Quadfasel, D. & Ronski, S. 1998: Is the Arctic Ocean warming? J. Geophys. Res. 103(C12), 27,679-27,687.

    Johnson, M., Proshutinsky, A. & Polyakov, I. 1999: Atmospheric patterns forcing two regimes of Arctic ice-ocean circulation: a return to anticyclonic conditions? Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1621-1624.

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 2001: Website for SCICEX (Scientific Ice Expeditions) at http://www. ldgo.columbia.edu/SCICEX/.

    Manabe, S., Spelman, M. J. & Stouffer, R. J. 1992: Transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual change of atmospheric CO2. J. Clim. 5, 105-126.

    Mikhalevsky, P. N., Baggeroer, A. B., Gavrilov, A. N. & Slavinsky, M. 1995: Experiment tests use of acoustics to monitor temperature and ice in the Arctic Ocean. Eos Trans. 76, 265-269.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark