Acoustic thermometry in the Arctic Ocean

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Mikhalevsky, Peter N. ; Gavrilov, Alexander N. (2001)

Large increases in the temperature of the Atlantic Layer in the Arctic Ocean have been observed since the early to mid-1990s and have continued through to the present. These changes were detected in 1994 and in 1999 with acoustic “sections” using acoustic thermometry. Both icebreaker and submarine CTD sections have confirmed these observations. Calculations of the travel time of acoustic mode 2 for the submarine CTD sections show a linear correlation with the mean temperature of the Atlantic Layer of the section. A cabled-to-shore undersea mooring system of Arctic Ocean observatories is needed to provide real-time year-round observations using conventional as well as acoustic remote sensing techniques.
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