The effects of Ammonia on the electrification of freezing and splashing water drops

Article English OPEN
BODHAINE, B. A. (2011)

Experiments were undertaken in which 2 mm diameter water drops contaminated with NaCl and/or (NH4)2CO3 were allowed to fall through a cold environment and impinge on an ice target. Charge deposited on the target was measured as a function of environment temperature (0°C to ?30°C) and concentration of the solution (10?6 M to 10?2 M). Maximum negative charge of 2.04 esu/g was produced by 10?4 M NaCl at an environment temperature of ?20°C. Maximum positive charge of 2.79 esu/g was produced by 10?3 M (NH4)2CO3 at an environment temperature of ?30°C. It was possible to suppress and even reverse the usual negative charge of salt by mixing with ammonia, suggesting the possibility of modifying thunderstorm electricity. All solutions weaker than 10?5 M gave complictated waveforms with a net negative charge.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1972.tb01573.x
  • References (13)
    13 references, page 1 of 2

    Gross, G. W. 1968. Some effects of trace inorganics on the icelwater system. Adv. Chem. Ser. 7 3 , 27- 97.

    Gross, G. W. 1970. Electrical properties of ice. Final Report, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico.

    Gunn, R. & Kinzer, G. D. 1949. The terminalvelocity of fall for water droplets in stagnant air. J . Meteor. 6 , 243-248.

    Junge, C. E. 1958. The distribution of ammonia and nitrate in rain water over the United States. Trans. Amer. Oeophys. U.39, 241-248.

    Latham, J. 1966. Electrification produced by the growth of soft hail in thunderclouds. Tellus 17, 204.

    Latham, J. & Miller, H. A. 1966. The role of ice specimen geometry and impact velocities in the Reynolds-Brook theory of thunder electrification. J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 505.

    Ludlam, F. H. 1950. The composition of coagulation elements in cumulonimbus. Quart. J. Royal Met. SOC7.6, 52-58.

    Pruppacher, IT. R., Steinbrger, E. H. &Wan& T. L. 1968. On the electrical effects that 80- company the spontaneous growth of ice in supercooled aqueous Solutions. J . Geophys. Res. 7 3 , 571-584.

    Reynolds, S. E., Brook, M. & Gourley, M. F. 1957. Thunderstorm charge separation. J . Meteor. 14, 426-436.

    Stretton, J. A. 1941. Electromagnetic theory, pp. 15-16. New York. McGraw-Hill,

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark