Bio-molecular architects: a scaffold provided by the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II
Gill, Gordon N.
- Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
Review Articles | transcription regulation | RNA polymerase II | C-terminal domain; RNA polymerase II; transcription regulation; phosphorylation; CTD code; WW domain; CID domain; SRI domain; FF domain; histone code; epigenetic regulation. | CTD code | epigenetic regulation | CID domain | WW domain | FF domain | SRI domain | histone code | C-terminal domain | phosphorylation
mesheuropmc: enzymes and coenzymes (carbohydrates) | genetic processes | health occupations | fungi | environment and public health
In eukaryotic cells, the transcription of genes is accurately orchestrated both spatially and temporally by the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD). The CTD provides a dynamic platform to recruit different regulators of the transcription apparatus. Different posttranslational modifications are precisely applied to specific sites of the CTD to coordinate transcription process. Regulators of the RNA polymerase II must identify specific sites in the CTD for cellular survival, metabolism, and development. Even though the CTD is disordered in the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II crystal structures due to its intrinsic flexibility, recent advances in the complex structural analysis of the CTD with its binding partners provide essential clues for understanding how selectivity is achieved for individual site recognition. The recent discoveries of the interactions between the CTD and histone modification enzymes disclose an important role of the CTD in epigenetic control of the eukaryotic gene expression. The intersection of the CTD code with the histone code discloses an intriguing yet complicated network for eukaryotic transcriptional regulation. Keywords: C-terminal domain; RNA polymerase II; transcription regulation; phosphorylation; CTD code; WW domain; CID domain; SRI domain; FF domain; histone code; epigenetic regulation (Published: 30 August 2010) Citation: Nano Reviews 2010, 1: 5502 - DOI: 10.3402/nano.v1i0.5502