Cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria in oral biofilms
Aas, Jørn A.
Paster, Bruce J.
- Publisher: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
mesheuropmc: stomatognathic diseases
This review gives an overview of the bacterial diversity of cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacterial species in oral biofilms. Examples are given from the healthy oral cavity of youngsters, adults, and the elderly; caries in primary and permanent teeth; root caries in the elderly; subgingival plaque; aggressive periodontitis; chronic periodontitis; necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis; halitosis; noma; endodontic infections; and spreading odontogenic infections. Transfer of biofilm bacteria to the blood is also discussed. Techniques used for identifying these organisms are mainly PCR, cloning, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, as well as microarrays. As much as 50% or more of the microbiota in oral biofilms cannot yet be cultured. This may have significant implications for our knowledge of the pathogens in major biofilm infections in the oral cavity such as caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, and mucositis. Furthermore, several bacterial species not traditionally believed to be oral pathogens have also been shown to be associated with disease.Key words: oral biofilm, PCR, cloning, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, not-yet-cultivated bacteria