The genesis and predictability of persistent Pacific–North American anomalies in a model atmosphere

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Lin, Hai ; Derome, Jacques (2011)

The setup process of Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern anomalies that last more than10 days and the role played therein by synoptic-scale transients are investigated using a T21,3-level quasi-geostrophic model. As there is no time-dependent forcing in the model, the lowfrequencyPNA anomalies are generated entirely by the internal dynamics. From a 300-winterintegration, 100 cases of positive PNA anomalies and 118 cases of negative PNA anomalieslasting at least 10 days are identified. The PNA composites reveal that 5 days before the setupof a positive (negative) PNA anomaly there is a negative (positive) height anomaly over Canada.This anomaly moves westward and stops over the North Pacific. It then intensifies and a wavetrain develops downstream. The roˆ le played by the synoptic-scale transients is explored byprediction experiments starting from day−5 (5 days before the appearance of a PNA anomaly).A 5-day average centered at day −5 is used to remove the synoptic-scale transients from theinitial state. The results indicate that even without these transients in the initial conditions, thesetup process of a positive PNA anomaly can be reproduced quite well. On the other hand,the setup of a negative PNA pattern cannot be predicted if the synoptic-scale transients areabsent from the initial conditions. In this case, the pattern evolves systematically, but differentlyfrom the way it evolves in the control run.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0870.1999.00011.x
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