Evidence from the Baltic Sea for an enhanced CO2 air–sea transfer velocity

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Kuss, Joachim ; Nagel, Klaus ; Schneider, Bernd (2011)

Surface water total CO2 concentrations (CT) and the CO2 partial pressure of the surface water and in the atmosphere were measured in the eastern Gotland Sea at approximately monthly intervals during five cruises in the winter of 1999/2000. Taking into account vertical/lateral exchange processes and the decomposition of organic matter, the monthly changes in CT were used to determine CO2evasion fluxes. In addition, the CO2 fluxes were calculated on the basis of the CO2 partial pressure differences using local wind speed (u) records and different currently applied parametrizations of the gas exchange transfer velocity (k). The latter resulted in substantially lower monthly fluxes that indicated a considerable underestimation of k from the k(u) functions used. To achieve an optimal agreement between the flux calculations and the balance-derived CO2 fluxes, the coefficients of both a simple quadratic and cubic function k(u) were iterated using a least-squares fitting procedure. The resulting equations, which refer to short-term wind data and to the CO2 exchange at 20 °C, were k= (0.45 ± 0.10)u2 and k= (0.037 ± 0.008)u3 (k, cm h−1; u, m s−1). These yielded higher k values than most of the previously proposed parametrizations. Unfortunately, our data did not allow us to decide whether the quadratic or cubic function is more appropriate to describe the gas exchange dynamics.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2004.00092.x
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