Numerical simulation of the development of tropical cyclones with a ten-level model. Part I

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Sundqvist, Hilding (2011)

The dynamic model is derived for an axi-symmetric vortex assuming quasi-balanced conditions. The effect of convection is included in the model through parameterization; the vertically integrated heat release is determined by the low level convergence of water vapor. The model vertical distribution of released latent heat is based on intuitive reasoning, because of insufficient knowledge of how real cumulunimbi accomplish such processes. Qualitative discussions enable us to infer, a priori, how the development is affected by various plausible functional forms describing the heating vertically. Two numerical experiments with different forms for the vertical distribution of heating are compared and an appreciable difference in the rate of intensification is indeed exhibited. The results of the experiment displaying what may be considered the most realistic intensification rate, are shown in detail. A number of comparisons with empirically deduced features of the tropical cyclones indicate that the model simulates nature noticeably well. Diagnostic studies of the energy budget of the storm reveal that the model possesses a satisfying internal consistency energetically. The rates of various energy transformations in the system compare fairly well with those estimated from observational data.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1970.tb00503.x
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