The energy budget of the earth–atmosphere system in Europe

Article English OPEN
ALESTALO, MIKKO (2011)
  • Publisher: Co-Action Publishing
  • Journal: Tellus A (issn: 1600-0870, eissn: 0280-6495)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3402/tellusa.v33i4.10722
  • Subject:
    arxiv: Physics::Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

Vertically integrated divergences of time mean atmospheric energy fluxes are computed for various subareas of Europe using radiosonde data from 1974–1976, and are used, together with relevant information in the literature, to discuss the energy budget of the earth-atmosphere system for these areas. It is found that a reasonable budget can be obtained when the size of the area is not smaller than 6–7 · 106 km2. Considering the mainland of Europe, the convergence of the atmospheric total energy flux amounts to 55 ± 15 W/m2 annually, which is comparable to satellite-based estimates of the net radiation flux, ?35 to ?70 W/m2, for the same region. This convergence is about twice as large as the corresponding zonally averaged convergence in the corresponding latitude belt. In the atmosphere, the combined mean-flow flux of sensible heat and potential energy is found to be the most important factor in the energy budget. However, the role of the transient eddies is also important, particularly in the convergence of latent heat and kinetic energy. The transient eddy flux divergences of total energy in winter act so as to dissipate the longitudinal anomalies of total energy.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1981.tb01758.x
  • References (24)
    24 references, page 1 of 3

    Alestalo, M. and Holopainen, E. 0. 1980. Atmospheric energy fluxes over Europe. Tellus 32, 500-5 10.

    Behr, H. D. and Speth, P. 1977. An investigation of the atmospheric heat and moisture balance in the Baltic. Sea region. Part 11: Heat balance. Meteorol. Rdsch. 30,97-111.

    Budyko, M. I. 1963. Atlas of the heat balance of the Earth (in Russian). Glavnaia Geofiz. Obs., Moscow, 69 PP.

    Bunker, A. F. and Worthington, L. V. 1976. Energy exchange charts of the North Atlantic Ocean. Bull. Amer. Soc. 57,670-678.

    Gruber, A. 1970. The energy budget over the Florida Peninsula when a convective regime dominates. J. Appl. Meteorol. 9,40 1-416.

    Hastenrath, S. L. 1966. On general circulation and energy budget in the area of the Central American seas. J.Atmos. Sci.23,694-71 1.

    Holopainen, E. 0. 1965. On the role of mean meridional circulations in the energy balance of the atmosphere. Tellus 17, 285-294.

    Holopainen, E. 0. 1969. On the maintenance of the atmosphere's kinetic energy over the Northern Hemisphere in winter. PAGEOPH 77, 104-121.

    Holopainen, E. 0. 1973. An attempt to determine the effects of turbulent friction in the upper troposphere from the balance requirements of the large-scale flow: a frustrating experiment. Geophysica 12, 151-176.

    Hutchings, J. W., 1957. Water-vapour flux and fluxdivergence over southern England: summer 1954. Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 83, 3 0 4 8 .

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark