The Origins of Polish Preschool Pedagogy
- Publisher: Edukacja Elementarna w Teorii i Praktyce
Elementary Education in Theory and Practice
(issn: 2353-7787, eissn: 1896-2327)
Education, history | preschool pedagogy and education; textbooks; kindergarten; educators; Froebel’s kindergarten teachers | pedagogika | pedagogika i pedagogika przedszkolna; podręczniki; ochroniarki; freblanki
Along with the development of kindergartens, children’s playgrounds, and colleges educating candidates for kindergarten educators and teachers, completely original works on the development of psychological and educational needs of the small child (B.F. Trentowski) began to appear in the Polish literature on the subject. It was at that time that the first Polish textbooks for kindergarten educators and later kindergarten teachers (Froebel’s Kindergärtnerinnen) began to be published. Until the 1870s, however, these were only examples and adaptations of foreign works, mainly by J.V. Svoboda and L. Chimani. The turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries was marked by the gradual disappearance of translations and adaptations, and the emergence of a growing number of original books, representing the achievements of Polish pedagogical thought. The first of them, however, by Maria Weryho-Radziwiłłowiczowa and Justyna Strzemeska, were still based on F.W. Froebel’s system, more or less modified, supported by their own pedagogical experience and contemporary psychological knowledge. At the beginning of the 20th century, two trends, valid until the 1930s, developed in Polish preschool pedagogy. The former, more traditional one, was associated with F.W. Froebel’s modified system, while the latter developed under the influence of contemporary achievements of psychology, and the methods of Maria Montessori and Ovide Decroly. It was from these two theoretical and methodological perspectives- orientations that coursebooks for preschool educators were developed. August Cieszkowski, Teofil Nowosielski, Stanisław Karpowicz and Maria Weryho-Radziwiłłowiczowa, Justyna Strzemeska, Stefania Marciszewska-Posadzowa and Jadwiga Chrząszczewska were the precursors of Polish preschool pedagogy.