School or home? The advantages and disadvantages of homeschooling and school education on the Polish territory in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century
- Publisher: Edukacja Elementarna w Teorii i Praktyce
Elementary Education in Theory and Practice
(issn: 2353-7787, eissn: 1896-2327)
Education | homeschooling; school education; the Polish territories during the partitions; the second half of the 19th century; the early 20th century; educational views | Pedagogika | edukacja domowa; kształcenie szkolne; ziemie polskie pod zaborami; II połowa XIX; początek XX wieku; poglądy pedagogiczne
Homeschooling, which in recent decades has become a popular form of compulsory education in the United States and some European countries, has been available to be implemented in Poland for 22 years, since 1991. The Act of 07.09.1991 allowed - in the formal and legal sense - teaching children outside the institutional environment of the school, i.e. usually at home, in conditions organized by the parents. Homeschooling in Poland, as a result of growing criticism and controversy surrounding the currently operating school model, is gaining more and more supporters. Facing the ever-growing interest in this alternative form of education, it is worthwhile to get to know the past and the historical roots of this phenomenon.The purpose of this paper is to attempt to reconstruct and systematize arguments both for and against homeschooling and school education, formulated by educational columnists in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. Textbooks and teaching guidebooks, including those in the field of education and homeschooling, teaching literature, as well as women's, family, political, social and literary press were used as a source basis allowing us to reconstruct these theoretical recommendations. This paper also aims to make readers aware that despite the passage of centuries, the problem "which education is better: the one at home or the one at school" remains as much urgent as unresolved.