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Nematerijalna kulturna baština posuškoga kraja s posebnim obzirom na suvremenu etnografiju

Authors: Kelava, Josipa;

Nematerijalna kulturna baština posuškoga kraja s posebnim obzirom na suvremenu etnografiju

Abstract

The paper presents and interprets contemporary field notes of intangible cultural heritage in the area of Posušje employing a multidisciplinary approach. The field notes were recorded from the beginning of 2010 until 2020. The interpretation is complemented by using relevant literary-theoretical literature. Introduction explains the dissertation's structure, materials used, methodology, aim of research and hypotheses. Introduction is followed by the chapter that deals with the historical and geographical characteristics of Posušje area. The first written mention of Posušje dates from 1378 in the description of the meeting convened by Margareta, the widow of the Croatian feudal lord Ivan Nelipić from Sinj, who owned Posušje. It is assumed that Posušje inherited its name from the droughts that marked the Posušje region. The long period of Ottoman rule left a deep mark on the life and the culture of the whole area. The help of the priests at the time of Ottoman rule was crucial for whole Christian community. Their commitment to the community continued through later periods. Today’s life of Posušje people is also closely connected to the religion and the church. The multidisciplinary analysis begins with the chapter on customs throughout the year. In the period of Advent, inhabitants of Posušje worship the holidays of St. Barbara, St. Nicholas, the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Lucy and St. Thomas in a special way. The days of Materice and Očići are associated with giving cina so they took the names Ženska (Female) and Muška (Male) cina. Recently the custom of advent wreath is more and more existent in the homes. In the period of preparation for Christmas, Christmas Eve is the day with which most folk customs are associated. The day of Christmas is characterized by going to the Holy Masses, congratulating each other, exchanging presents, praying, eating Christmas meal and being with loved ones. Christmas is followed by the Christmas Octave (Božićna osmina), that celebrates the days of the saints: Stephen the First Martyr and John the Evangelist, then the Innocent Children and the St. Sylvester' Day. The New Year is the last day of the Christmas Octave. With the feast of the Holy Three Kings ends the Christmas period and then all Christmas decorations are removed. Candlemas is celebrated forty days after the Christmas in memory of the Presentation of Jesus Christ in the Temple in Jerusalem. It is also called Kalandora. This holiday is associated with the divinations about the weather and fertility of the year. Carnival customs took an important place in the past among adults. The scenes of grandmother and grandfather as well as the scenes of bride and groom that were seen very often in the past, are no longer present. These scenes have elements of folklore theatre. Nowadays, children disguise themselves as characters of their favourite heroes, princesses or animals. They go from house to house and receive money and sweets as gifts. With the holiday of Ash Wednesday begins the period of Lent. In this period of preparation for the greatest Christian holiday there are no festivities or weddings. In the past women often wore black clothes and did not cut their hair. The narrators testify that people often abstained from eating meat and dairy products during the period of Lent, and on Holy Wednesday, Annunciation and Holy Days they would only drink water and eat bread. Palm Sunday presents the introduction to the Holy Week. The Paschal Triduum begins with the Holy Thursday which is associated with the presentation of Keeping the Tomb of Christ. This custom is no longer present in the parish of Posušje. The day of Holy Friday was marked as a day for helping people in need, and Holy Saturday is marked by the preparation for the Easter. In the evening people go to the Easter Vigil where the priest blesses the prepared food. Easter marks the beginning of a new, happier period for Christians when Jesus's victory over death is celebrated. Other customs throughout the year refer to the Feast of Saint George, the Feast of Saint Mark the Evangelist, the Ascension, the Feast of Corpus Christi, the Feast of Saint Anthony, the Feast of Saint John the Baptist, the Feast of Saint Elijah, The Assumption of Mary into Heaven, the Feast of Saint Rocco, All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day. A great number of customs and divinations related to mentioned feasts do not belong to the living tradition of the Posušje area. The chapter on prayer oral songs brings an analysis of about forty originally recorded prayer songs and their variations. Prayers are classified into: morning prayers; community prayers (family and relatives) afternoon and evening prayers; evening (before going to sleep) prayers; commemorative prayers; prayers dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and prayers dedicated to saints. A comparative approach shows that the verses of originally recorded prayer songs in Posušje appear in Croatian records of prayers in other areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are numerous variations and interleaving of verses of different prayers on the studied area, which affirms the rich transmission of the oral folk prayers. The oral folk transmission of prayers is much less present nowadays. The motif and thematic world of the traditions of the Posušje region is diverse and rich. Based on the classification of Marko Dragić, traditions are classified into: historical, etiological, eschatological, mythical, demonological and stories from everyday life. Besides the traditions associated to the Ottoman rule, the most common are mythical and demonological themes. The contents of the traditions intertwine, so some of them could be classified into several different groups. That can especially be seen with historical and etiological traditions that are largely related to the theme of the Ottoman occupation. The historical traditions in the paper are related to stećci and the mentioned period of Ottoman occupation. Etiological traditions mostly originated on the historical level and on the basis of stories from everyday life. Eschatological traditions refer to the appearance of murdered new-borns and adults. The only mythical beings of traditions recorded at the area of Posušje are fairies. In the folk tradition fairies are characterized as beings that rarely do harm to people. They would do so if someone discovered their secret that they have a horse, donkey or goat hoof. They would also revenge to those people who discover others where they took them. To those who invoke them, they caused insanity. However, if someone did a favour to them, they would have always given that person a reward. Demonological beings also possess supernatural abilities. However, they always harm people in some way. These creatures are: witches, more, werewolf, devil and ominous birds. Stories from everyday life refer to: didactical stories about killing father, those that explain the causes of burying the dead after twenty-four hours have passed since death, the story about going to work in Dalmatia, story about the hero Sirovina from Rakitno and the story about three hunters. Main characters of legends recorded in the area of Posušje are Jesus Christ, Saint Peter and Saint Anthony. The paper also presents and interprets legends about the origin of Blidinje Lake which reflect the Old Testament motif of Sodom and Gomorrah. Compared to the customs that preceded the traditional wedding, the customs that precede contemporary weddings are significantly reduced. Considering wedding morning, day and evening, recently taken customs often overlap with the traditional ones. Therefore, in addition to frequently modified traditional customs such as welcoming wedding guests at home, aspersion, throwing an apple, toasting and giving presents, customs that have been adopted under the influence of various media such as the first wedding dance, cake-cutting and throwing the bridal bouquet appear in contemporary weddings. Ganga is the way of singing that is characteristic for the researched region. Although it is much less present today than it was in the last century, ganga is still considered to be an important part of the cultural tradition of Posušje area. The examples of gangas are classified according to the main motifs: about ganga and singing, ganga of love themes and other ganga that cover several different themes. The chapter on microstructures refers to proverbs and riddles. Proverbs were often used when one wanted to instruct or warn a certain way of behaving while riddles were used to entertain and to develop way of thinking. The paper presents sixty records of proverbs and fifty-two records of riddles classified alphabetically. In addition to the cattle raising and agriculture, inhabitants of Posušje in the past earned for their living by growing and selling tobacco. They also practiced traditional crafts and handicrafts. Carpenters, saddlers and coopers were engaged in wood processing. Blacksmiths made, sharpened and repaired items made of iron and steel. Stonemasonry or stone craft refers to craft of shaping rock. People used rock to build houses, farm buildings, draw-wells, drywells but also gravestones and crosses. The most common raw material in the production of textile handicrafts was wool. With the abandonment of cattle raising as the primary form of economy and the arrival of various factory materials, customs related to the manufacture of clothing and other items of wool were extinguished at the area of Posušje. Today, these items can more often be seen by elderly who keep them as a memory of past days. Conclusion of the dissertation presents the knowledge about the intangible cultural heritage of the area of Posušje, which is an integral and important part of the Croatian intangible cultural heritage. The paper ends with Resources and References. Key words: intangible cultural heritage, customs throughout the year, prayer oral songs, traditions, legends, wedding customs, gange, microstructures, economy, Posušje area.

U radu se navode i multidisciplinarno analiziraju suvremeni terenski zapisi primjera nematerijalne kulturne baštine posuškoga kraja. Zapisi su nastajali u vremenskom razdoblju od 2010. do 2020. godine na području posuške općine. Interpretacija se nadopunila korištenjem relevantne književno-teorijske literature. U uvodnom dijelu rada izneseni su podatci o građi, metodologiji, ciljevima i hipotezama istraživanja. Nakon uvodnoga dijela pružen je osvrt na povijesni pregled posuškoga kraja. Prvi pisani spomen posuškoga imena potječe iz 1378. godine u opisu zbora kojeg je sazvala Margareta, udovica hrvatskog feudalca Ivana Nelipića iz Sinja, u čijem se vlasništvu nalazilo i Posušje. Pretpostavlja se da Posušje svoj naziv baštini po sušama koje su obilježile posuški kraj. Na život i kulturu Posušana dubok trag ostavilo je višestoljetno razdoblje osmanske vladavine. U to se vrijeme ističe snalažljivost svećenika i njihova pomoć koju su pružali narodu. Njihovo zalaganje za narod nastavilo se i kroz kasnija razdoblja, a danas je život Posušana također usko vezan uz vjeru i crkvu. Multidisciplinarna analiza građe započinje poglavljem o običajima kroz godinu, razdobljem adventa. Na poseban se način u ovom razdoblju štuju spomendani svete Barbare, svetoga Nikole, blagdan Bezgrješnoga začeća Blažene Djevice Marije, spomendani svete Lucije i svetoga Tome. Uz dane Materica i Očića vezuje se običaj davanja cine pa su tako ovi dani poprimili nazive Ženska i Muška cina. Od novijih adventskih običaja ističe se adventski vijenac koji je sve češće prisutan u domovima Posušana. U razdoblju priprave za Božić, Badnjak je dan uz kojeg se veže ponajviše narodnih običaja. Vrhunac božićnih blagdana je sami Božić, a karakterizira ga: odlazak na svete mise, čestitanje, darivanje, molitva, božićno jelo i druženje s najbližima. Nakon Božića slijedi Božićna osmina u kojoj se slave blagdani svetaca: Stjepana prvomučenika i Ivana evanđelista, zatim Nevina dječica i spomendan svetoga Silvestra. Zadnji dan u Božićnoj osmini zauzima Nova godina. Blagdanom Sveta tri kralja završava božićno razdoblje i tada se sklanjaju svi božićni ukrasi. Kršćanski blagdan Svijećnica slavi se četrdeset dana nakon Božića u spomen Prikazanja Gospodinovog u Hramu u Jeruzalemu. U narodu se naziva i Kalandora, a uz ovaj blagdan vežu se proricanja o vremenu i plodnosti godine. Pokladni običaji maskiranja i maskirnih ophoda u prošlosti su zauzimali važno mjesto među u posuškom kraju. Tako su bili česti prizori babe i dida, mlade i mladoženje 298 koji imaju elemente folklornog kazališta. Ovakvi prizori nisu više prisutni u pokladnoj tradiciji istraživanog područja. U današnje se vrijeme najčešće djeca prerušavaju u ustaljene likove omiljenih junaka, princeza ili životinja. Obilazeći kuće, djeca kao poklon primaju novce i slatkiše te se za njih u vrtićima i školama organiziraju maskenbali. Nakon poklada, danom Čiste srijede započinje korizmeno razdoblje pripreme za Uskrs. Ne održavaju se veselja ni svadbe, a žene su u prošlosti najčešće nosile crnu odjeću te nisu kratile kosu. Kazivači svjedoče kako se u prošlosti držalo više do posta, tako su se ljudi često suzdržavali od mesa i mliječnih proizvoda tijekom cijele korizme, a na Čistu srijedu, Blagovijest i Velike dane bi postili o kruhu i vodi. Uvod u Veliki tjedan nastupa blagdanom Cvjetnice ili Nedjeljom Muke Gospodnje, a Sveto trodnevlje započinje Velikim četvrtkom uz koji se veže prikazivanje Čuvanja Kristova groba koji se u posuškoj župi više ne održava. Na Veliki petak se očituje preduskrsni duh pomaganja drugima jer se osim sijanja rasada, nije smjelo raditi ništa o zemlji, osim ako je to bilo za potrebe siromašnih. Velika ili Bijela subota obilježena je spremanjem za sami blagdan Uskrsa. Navečer se odlazi na uskrsno bdijenje i blagoslov hrane. Blagdanom Uskrsa započinje novo, radosnije razdoblje za kršćane kada se slavi Isusova pobjeda nad smrću. Ostali godišnji običaji odnose se na: spomendan svetoga Jure, spomendan svetoga Marka, Spasovo, blagdan Tijelova, spomendan svetoga Ante, spomendan svetoga Ivana Krstitelja, spomendan svetoga Ilije, blagdan Velike Gospe, spomendan svetoga Roka, blagdan Svih svetih i Dušnoga dana. Velik dio običaja i divinacija vezanih uz navedene blagdane i spomendane ne pripadaju živoj tradiciji posuškoga kraja. Poglavlje o molitvenim usmenim pjesmama donosi analizu četrdesetak izvornih zapisa molitvenih pjesama i njihovih varijacija. Molitve su klasificirane na: jutarnje; općinske (zajedničke obiteljske i rodbinske) poslijepodnevne i večernje molitve, večernje (pred odlazak na spavanje); prigodne; molitve posvećene Blaženoj Djevici Mariji te svetačke molitve. Komparativnim pristupom utvrđeno je kako se stihovi izvorno zapisanih molitvenih pjesama u posuškom kraju pojavljuju u zapisima molitvi kod Hrvata na drugim područjima Bosne i Hercegovine. U samom Posušju dolazi do brojnih varijacija i prepletanja stihova različitih molitvi. To svjedoči o bogatoj, ali u današnje vrijeme znatno manje prisutnoj tradiciji prenošenja narodnih molitvi usmenim putem. Motivski i tematski svijet predaja posuškoga kraja raznolik je i bogat. Polazeći od klasifikacije Marka Dragića, predaje su podijeljene na: povijesne, etiološke, eshatološke, mitske, demonološke i pričanja iz života. Osim tematike turske vladavine, informanti se najviše zadržavaju na mitskim i demonološkim temama. Sadržaji predaja prepleću se, stoga bi se neke od njih mogle svrstati u više različitih skupina. Posebice je to u radu vidljivo kod povijesnih i etioloških predaja koje su velikim dijelom povezane s tematikom osmanske okupacije. Povijesne predaje u radu vezuju se uz stećke i spomenuto razdoblje osmanske okupacije. Zapisane etiološke predaje nastale su najvećim dijelom na povijesnoj razini te na temelju pričanja iz života. Eshatološke predaje kazuju o pojavljivanju ubijene tek rođene djece te odraslih osoba. Mitska bića posuških predaja su vile. Vile se u narodnim predajama karakteriziraju kao bića koja rijetko nanose zlo ljudima, a činile bi to ukoliko bi netko otkrio njihovu tajnu da imaju konjsko ili magareće kopito ili kozji papak. Također znale su se osvetiti onima koji bi otkrili drugima gdje su ih one vodile, a onima koji su ih prizivali izazivale su pomutnju razuma. Međutim, ukoliko bi im netko učinio uslugu, uvijek bi ga na neki način nagradile. Bića demonoloških predaja također posjeduju nadnaravne sposobnosti. Međutim, ona uvijek na neki način nanose ljudima zlo. U radu su ta bića: vještice i more, vukodlak, đavao te zloguke ptice. Pričanja iz života donose: poučnu priču o ubijanju oca, zatim predaje koje objašnjavaju uzroke pokapanja mrtvaca nakon što prođu dvadeset i četiri sata od smrti. Nadalje, navodi se priča o odlasku na nadnicu u Dalmaciju, priča o junaku Sirovini iz Rakitna te o tri lovca. U legendama zapisanim na posuškom području glavni su sudionici Isus Krist i sv. Petar te sv. Ante. U radu se također navode legende o postanku Blidinjskoga jezera u kojima se ogleda starozavjetni motiv Sodome i Gomore. U usporedbi s običajima koji su prethodili tradicijskom sklapanju braka, običaji koji prethode suvremenim svadbama znatno su reducirani. Kada je riječ o samom tijeku svadbenoga jutra, dana i večeri, najčešće dolazi do prepletanja tradicijskih i novijih svadbenih običaja. Tako su od tradicijskih, uz preinake, najzastupljeniji: doček svatova kod kuće, škropljenje prilikom odlaska u crkvu, prebacivanje jabuke preko krova kuće, zdravice te darivanje mladenaca i uzdarje uzvanicima. U suvremenim su svadbama najčešće prisutni, putem medija novije usvojeni običaji, prvi ples mladenaca, rezanje torte i bacanje buketa. Ganga je način pjevanja koji je karakterističan za istraživano područje. Iako se u današnje vrijeme može čuti znatno rjeđe nego je to bio slučaj u prošlom stoljeću, smatra se neizostavnim dijelom kulturne tradicije u posuškom kraju. Navedeni primjeri gangi u radu su klasificirani prema glavnim motivima. Tako su prikazani zapisi gangi koje govore o gangi i pjevanju, nadalje, gange ljubavne tematike i ostale gange koje obuhvaćaju više različitih tema. Poglavlje o mikrostrukturama odnosi se na poslovice i zagonetke. Poslovice su se često koristile kada bi se nekoga htjelo uputiti ili upozoriti na određeni način ponašanja dok su zagonetke služile za zabavu i razvijanje načina razmišljanja. Rad donosi šezdeset zapisa poslovica te pedeset i dva zapisa zagonetki. Poslovice i zagonetke klasificirane su abecedno. Pored osnovnih grana privređivanja stočarstva i poljoprivrede, Posušani su u prošlosti zarađivali za život uzgojem i prodajom duhana. Također, bavili su se tradicijskim zanatima i rukotvorinama. Obradom drva bavili su se stolari, samardžije i bačvari. Kovači su izrađivali, oštrili i popravljali predmete izrađene od željeza. Kamenoklesari i zidari su obrađivali kamen kojim su se gradile kuće, gospodarski objekti poput staja i mlinica, zatim bunari i čatrnje, suvozidine, a služio je također pri izradi nadgrobnih spomenika i križeva. Najčešća sirovina pri izradi tekstilnih rukotvorina bila je vuna. Napuštanjem stočarstva kao primarnog oblika privređivanja te dolaskom raznih tvorničkih materijala, običaji vezani uz izrađivanje odjevnih i drugih predmeta od vune gasili su se na posuškome području, a navedeni se vuneni predmeti danas najčešće mogu naći kod starijih osoba. U zaključku rada iznesene su spoznaje o nematerijalnoj kulturnoj baštini posuškoga kraja koja je sastavni i važan dio hrvatske nematerijalne kulturne baštine. Na kraju rada donosi se popis kazivača i literature.

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Croatia
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Subjects by Vocabulary

Universal Decimal Classification: udc:821.163.42(043.3)

Keywords

8, Hrvatska književnost, mikrostrukture, customs throughout the year, gange, 821.163.42, HUMANISTIČKE ZNANOSTI. Interdisciplinarne humanističke znanosti., posuški kraj., privređivanje, intangible cultural heritage, svadbeni običaji, HUMANISTIC SCIENCES. Interdisciplinary Humanistic Studies., predaje, prayer oral songs, legende, Posušje area., wedding customs, molitvene usmene pjesme, običaji kroz godinu, economy, Croatian literature, microstructures, nematerijalna kulturna baština, običaji kroz godinu, molitvene usmene pjesme, predaje, legende, svadbeni običaji, gange, mikrostrukture, privređivanje, posuški kraj., legends, nematerijalna kulturna baština, traditions

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This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
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This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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