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image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao University of Southe...arrow_drop_down
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Loss Compensation for Companies and Corporate Groups in the European Union

Authors: Jespersen, Christian;

Loss Compensation for Companies and Corporate Groups in the European Union

Abstract

Afhandlingen analyserer i hvilket omfang Traktatfrihederne forpligter medlemsstaterne til at yde kompensation for underskud til koncerner og til selskaber med faste driftssteder. Afhandlingen er inddelt i otte kapitler. Afhandlingens kapitel 1 præsenterer emnet, problemformulering samt metode.Afhandlingens kapitel 2 introducerer emnet på medlemsstabsniveau. Dette kapitelintroducerer de udfordringer, som - på den ene side - den asymmetriske behandling af overskud og underskud og - på den anden side - de grundlæggende principper for beskatning skaber i relation til fradrag, som skaber et underskud. Herudover beskriver kapitlet de mest almindelige metoder, som anvendes for at yde underskudskompensation. Endelige beskriver kapitlet de udfordringer, som opstår i relation til underskudskompensation, når selskaber og koncerner udøver grænseoverskridende virksomhed. Afhandlingens kapitel 3-5 introducerer de fire friheder og redegør for, hvordan EU domstolen vurderer, om en national skattelovgivning er i uoverensstemmelse med en traktatfrihed. Kapitel 3 introducerer de fire traktatfriheder og redegør for traktatfrihedernes restriktionsbegreb, som dette fortolkes i relation til nationale regler på området for direkte beskatning. På grundlag af dette indledende kapitel uddyber kapitel 4 restriktionstesten, som består af henholdsvis ulempetesten of sammenlignelighedstesten, mens kapitel 5 uddyber justifikationstesten.Afhandlingens kapitel 6-7 analyserer EU-domstolens praksis vedrørende underskudskompensation. Kapitel 6 analyserer i hvilket omfang en medlemsstat er forpligtet til at yde kompensation for underskud lidt af koncerner i grænseoverskridende situationer. Dette afsnit analyserer således EU-domstolens praksis vedrørende horisontalekompensationsordninger samt underskudsanvendelse i forlængelse af en fusion. Kapitel 7 analyserer i hvilket omfang en medlemsstat er forpligtet til at yder kompensation for underskud lidt af et selskab med et fast driftssted. Dette afsnit analyserer EU-domstolens praksis vedrørende fradrag for underskud i det underskudsgivende indkomstår, fradrag for underskud i medfør af vertikale kompensationsordninger, genbeskatning af underskud som allerede er taget i betragtning og udskydelse af beskatning som følge af underskud. The thesis analyses to what extent the Treaty freedoms require the EU Member State to provide loss compensation to corporate groups and to companies with permanent establishments in the European Union. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first part of the thesis presents the subject, the research questions, the motivation for the choice of subject, delimitation and legal philosophy and methods.Chapter 2 introduces the subject on Member State-level. This chapter introduces the challenges that are caused by - on the one hand - the asymmetrical treatment of profits and loss and - on the other hand - the fundamental principles of taxation in respect of losses. This chapter further introduces the most common methods adopted in order to provide loss compensation. Finally, the chapter elaborates on the challenges that arise in relation to loss compensation when corporate groups and companies exercise cross-border activity.Chapter 3-5 introduces the four Treaty freedoms and explain how the European Court of justice examines whether a nation legislation on direct taxation violates a Treaty freedom. Chapter 3 introduces the four Treaty freedoms and explains how the European Court of Justice interprets the concept of restriction in respect of national legislation on direct taxation. On that basis, chapter 4 elaborates on the restriction test, which comprises the disadvantage test and the comparability test, while chapter 5 elaborates on the justification test.Chapters 6-7 analyses the case law of the European Court of Justice on loss compensation. Chapter 6 analyses to what extent the Treaty freedoms require a Member State to provide loss compensation to corporate groups in cross-border situations. This chapter analyses the case law on horizontal loss compensation schemes and national provisions providing for loss compensation in the context of a merger. Chapter 7 analyses to what extent a Member State is required to provide loss compensation to a company with a permanent establishment. This chapter analyses the case law concerning deductions of losses during the loss-making income year, deduction of losses by means of horizontal loss compensation schemes, reincorporation of losses previously deduction and the deferral of taxation as a consequence of losses.Chapter 8 contains the conclusion on the thesis. This chapter concludes to what extent the Treaty freedoms require the Member States to provide loss compensation to corporate groups in cross-border situations and to a company with a permanent establishment.

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Denmark
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    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
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