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Theseus
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Sähköajoneuvon vaihtosähkölatausta koskevat vaatimukset ja latausaseman rakenne

Authors: Stenhammar, Rino;

Sähköajoneuvon vaihtosähkölatausta koskevat vaatimukset ja latausaseman rakenne

Abstract

The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to examine the regulations and the standards that apply to electric vehicle charging and to examine the components and the modules of the EV charging station for Metropolia UAS. The standards discussed in this thesis are official Finnish SFS standards and part of the regulations and recommendations are claims given by SESKO. The components and the structure of the charging station are examined from the standards’ aspect and from the wiring diagrams of a few charging stations’ aspect. The general EV charging issues as the plugs and the maximum currents of them, the charging modes, fast charging and its technical information are reviewed at the beginning of this thesis. The next part of the thesis deals with the requirements applying to EV charging from a household socket and the requirements applying to electric vehicle a.c. charging station. The standardization process and the new requirements of revised standards applying to charging stations and their installations are also reviewed in the same chapter. In the last main paragraph the components of the electric vehicle a.c. charging station such as electrical protection devices, the charging control unit and its functions, the contactor and the socket are examined. The requirements that apply to EV charging station and its protective functions are very strict in Finland. The risk of electric shock and fire has been minimized and the charging station must observe protective earthing constantly. The charging current is limited low enough to maintain the socket durability when charged from a regular household socket. It is also required to consider the condition and load of the electrical grid, Finnish alternating weather conditions and possible vandalism when manufacturing and installing an EV charging station. As a result of this thesis a comprehensive survey of electric vehicle a.c. charging and the components of charging station was carried out. The thesis gives a good review of the requirements of charging in Finland, the issues that must be considered when installing a station and the components of a station. The thesis is suitable as teaching and learning material for EV engineering students and lecturers. Electrical contractors and do-it-yourself people may find this thesis useful source material as well.

Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena oli selvittää sähköajoneuvon lataukseen liittyviä standardeja ja vaatimuksia sekä latausaseman rakennetta Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle. Standardit joita työssä käsitellään, ovat Suomessa virallisiksi hyväksyttyjä SFS-standardeja ja osa vaatimuksista ja suosituksista on muita SESKOn antamia sähköajoneuvon lataukseen liittyviä seikkoja. Latausaseman rakennetta käsitellään standardien ja muutaman aseman kytkentäkaavion pohjalta. Työn alussa käydään läpi yleiset sähköajoneuvon lataukseen liittyvät seikat kuten esimerkiksi erilaiset latausliittimet ja niiden sallimat huippuvirrat, lataustavat ja pikalataukseen liittyvät tekniset tiedot. Seuraavana selvitetään itse työn aihetta, jotka koskevat sähköajoneuvon latausta kotitalouspistorasiasta ja vaihtosähkölatausasemaa. Samassa kuvataan myös standardisoimisprosessi sekä työn kirjoitushetkellä voimaan tulleita ja tulevia uudistuksia latausasemiin ja niiden asennuksiin liittyvissä standardeissa. Viimeinen varsinainen käsittelyluku koskee vaihtosähkölatausaseman rakennetta eli sen sisältämiä suojalaitteita, ohjainlaitetta ja sen toimintoja sekä kontaktoria ja pistorasiaa. Latausasemien rakenteelle ja suojatoiminnoille on asetettu tiukat vaatimukset Suomessa. Mahdollisuus sähköiskuun ja tulipaloon on minimoitu hyvin pieneksi ja latausaseman on tarkkailtava suojamaadoitusta jatkuvasti. Suko-pistorasiasta ladattaessa virta on rajoitettu riittävän pieneksi pistorasian kestävyyden takaamiseksi. Latausasemaa valmistettaessa ja asennettaessa on otettava huomioon muun muassa sähköverkon kunto ja kuormitus, Suomen vaihtelevat sääolosuhteet ja mahdollinen ilkivalta. Insinöörityön lopputuloksena syntyi kattava kirjallisuuskatsaus vaihtosähkölatauksen vaatimuksista ja latausaseman rakenteesta. Työstä saa hyvän kuvan siitä, mitä vaatimuksia latausasemalle on Suomessa asetettu, mitä asioita on otettava huomioon sellaista asennettaessa ja mistä eri osista se rakentuu. Työ soveltuu opetusmateriaaliksi sähköajoneuvotekniikan opettajille ja opiskelijoille. Myös esimerkiksi itserakentelijat ja sähköurakoitsijat voivat hyödyntää työtä lähdemateriaalina.

Country
Finland
Keywords

sähköturvallisuus, fi=Ajoneuvo- ja kuljetustekniikka|sv=Fordons- och transportteknik|en=Vehicle and Transportation Engineering|, Ajoneuvotekniikan tutkinto-ohjelma, sähköajoneuvon latausasema, standardi, Autosähkötekniikka

37 Nurmi, Tapani. 2017. Tekninen johtaja, SESKO ry, Helsinki. Vastaus sähköpostitiedusteluun. 23.11.2017.

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average