Aakko-Saksa, P., Koponen, P., Aurela, M., Vesala, H., Piimäkorpi, P., Murtonen, T., Sippula, O., Koponen, H., Karjalainen, P., Kuittinen, N., Panteliadis, P., Rönkkö, T., and Timonen, H.: Considerations in analysing elemental carbon from marine engine exhaust using residual, distillate and biofuels, J. Aerosol Sci., 126, 191- 204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2018.09.005, 2018. [OpenAIRE]
Adachi, K., Chung, S. H., and Buseck, P. R.: Shapes of soot aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15206, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012868, 2010.
Adachi, K., Sedlacek, A. J., Kleinman, L., Springston, S. R., Wang, J., Chand, D., Hubbe, J. M., Shilling, J. E., Onasch, T. B., Kinase, T., Sakata, K., Takahashi, Y., and Buseck, P. R.: Spherical tarball particles form through rapid chemical and physical changes of organic matter in biomassburning smoke, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 19336-19341, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900129116, 2019. [OpenAIRE]
Altstädter, B., Platis, A., Jähn, M., Baars, H., Lückerath, J., Held, A., Lampert, A., Bange, J., Hermann, M., and Wehner, B.: Airborne observations of newly formed boundary layer aerosol particles under cloudy conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8249- 8264, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-8249-2018, 2018. [OpenAIRE]
Arnott, W. P., Moosmüller, H., Sheridan, P. J., Ogren, J. A., Raspet, R., Slaton, W. V., Hand, J. L., Kreidenweis, S. M., and Collett Jr., J. L.: Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4034, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002165, 2003.
Baumgardner, D., Popovicheva, O., Allan, J., Bernardoni, V., Cao, J., Cavalli, F., Cozic, J., Diapouli, E., Eleftheriadis, K., Genberg, P. J., Gonzalez, C., Gysel, M., John, A., Kirchstetter, T. W., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Laborde, M., Lack, D., Müller, T., Niessner, R., Petzold, A., Piazzalunga, A., Putaud, J. P., Schwarz, J., Sheridan, P., Subramanian, R., Swietlicki, E., Valli, G., Vecchi, R., and Viana, M.: Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1869-1887, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-1869-2012, 2012. [OpenAIRE]
Bautista, A. T., Pabroa, P. C. B., Santos, F. L., Quirit, L. L., Asis, J. L. B., Dy, M. A. K., and Martinez, J. P. G.: Intercomparison between NIOSH, IMPROVE_A, and EUSAAR_2 protocols: Finding an optimal thermal-optical protocol for Philippines OC/EC samples, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 6, 334-342, https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2015.037, 2015.
Birch, M., Dahmann, D., and Fricke, H.-H.: Comparison of two carbon analysis methods for monitoring diesel particulate levels in mines, J. Environ. Monit., 1, 541-544, https://doi.org/10.1039/A905204F, 1999. [OpenAIRE]
Birch, M. E. and Cary, R. A.: Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational exposures to particulate diesel exhaust, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 25, 221-241, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829608965393, 1996.
Bond, T. C.: Spectral dependence of visible light absorption by carbonaceous particles emitted from coal combustion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4075-4078, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013652, 2001.
- Impact byBIP!
citationsThis is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). 0 popularityThis indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network. Average influenceThis indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). Average impulseThis indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network. Average citationsThis is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). 0 popularityThis indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network. Average influenceThis indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). Average impulseThis indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network. Average
- National Research Council Italy
- Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Italy
- Leibniz Association Germany
- Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research Netherlands
- Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research Netherlands
- National Research Council Canada Canada
- Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research Netherlands
- Joint Research Centre Italy
- JRC -JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE- EUROPEAN COMMISSION Belgium
- Paul Scherrer Institute Switzerland
- Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Germany Germany
- Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research Germany
The mass concentration of black carbon (BC) particles in the atmosphere has traditionally been quantified with two methods: as elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured by thermal–optical analysis and as equivalent black carbon (eBC) concentrations when BC mass is derived from particle light absorption coefficient measurements. Over the last decade, ambient measurements of refractory black carbon (rBC) mass concentrations based on laser-induced incandescence (LII) have become more common, mostly due to the development of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument. In this work, EC and rBC mass concentration measurements from field campaigns across several background European sites (Palaiseau, Bologna, Cabauw and Melpitz) have been collated and examined to identify the similarities and differences between BC mass concentrations measured by the two techniques. All EC concentration measurements in PM2.5 were performed with the EUSAAR-2 thermal–optical protocol. All rBC concentration measurements were performed with SP2 instruments calibrated with the same calibration material as recommended in the literature. The observed values of median rBC-to-EC mass concentration ratios on the single-campaign level were 0.53, 0.65, 0.97, 1.20 and 1.29, respectively, and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) was 1.5 when considering all data points from all five campaigns. This shows that substantial systematic bias between these two quantities occurred during some campaigns, which also contributes to the large overall GSD. Despite considerable variability in BC properties and sources across the whole dataset, it was not possible to clearly assign reasons for discrepancies to one or the other method, both known to have their own specific limitations and uncertainties. However, differences in the particle size range covered by these two methods were identified as one likely reason for discrepancies. Overall, the observed correlation between rBC and EC mass reveals a linear relationship with a constant ratio, thus providing clear evidence that both methods essentially quantify the same property of atmospheric aerosols, whereas systematic differences in measured absolute values by up to a factor of 2 can occur. This finding for the level of agreement between two current state-of-the-art techniques has important implications for studies based on BC mass concentration measurements, for example for the interpretation of uncertainties in inferred BC mass absorption coefficient values, which are required for modeling the radiative forcing of BC. Homogeneity between BC mass determination techniques is also very important for moving towards a routine BC mass measurement for air quality regulations.