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- Impact byBIP!
citationsThis is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). 0 popularityThis indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network. Average influenceThis indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). Average impulseThis indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network. AverageUsage byUsageCounts views 3 citationsThis is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). 0 popularityThis indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network. Average influenceThis indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically). Average impulseThis indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network. Average
- Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres Germany
- University of Gothenburg Sweden
- Leibniz Association Germany
- ETH Zurich Switzerland
- Istanbul Technical University Turkey
- GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel Germany
- INSTITUTUL NATIONAL DE CERCETARE-DEZVOLTARE PENTRU GEOLOGIE SI GEOECOLOGIE MARINA-GEOECOMAR Romania
- National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Ukraine
- Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Centre for Materials and Coastal Research Germany
- Babeș-Bolyai University Romania
- Scottish Association For Marine Science United Kingdom
- Istanbul Technical University Turkey
- National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology Italy
- Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Switzerland
- Babes Bolyai University Romania
- Marine Hydrophysical Institute Ukraine
- Istanbul Technical University
- Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology Germany
- Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Germany
- Max Planck Society Germany
- Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology Germany
- Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Germany Germany
- A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas Ukraine
- GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Library Germany
- University of Patras Greece
- University of Bremen Germany
In this paper we provide an overview of new knowledge on oxygen depletion (hypoxia) and related phenomena in aquatic systems resulting from the EU-FP7 project HYPOX ("In situ monitoring of oxygen depletion in hypoxic ecosystems of coastal and open seas, and landlocked water bodies", http://www.hypox.net). In view of the anticipated oxygen loss in aquatic systems due to eutrophication and climate change, HYPOX was set up to improve capacities to monitor hypoxia as well as to understand its causes and consequences. Temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of hypoxia were analyzed in field studies in various aquatic environments, including the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, Scottish and Scandinavian fjords, Ionian Sea lagoons and embayments, and Swiss lakes. Examples of episodic and rapid (hours) occurrences of hypoxia, as well as seasonal changes in bottom-water oxygenation in stratified systems, are discussed. Geologically driven hypoxia caused by gas seepage is demonstrated. Using novel technologies, temporal and spatial patterns of water-column oxygenation, from basin-scale seasonal patterns to meter-scale sub-micromolar oxygen distributions, were resolved. Existing multidecadal monitoring data were used to demonstrate the imprint of climate change and eutrophication on long-term oxygen distributions. Organic and inorganic proxies were used to extend investigations on past oxygen conditions to centennial and even longer timescales that cannot be resolved by monitoring. The effects of hypoxia on faunal communities and biogeochemical processes were also addressed in the project. An investigation of benthic fauna is presented as an example of hypoxia-devastated benthic communities that slowly recover upon a reduction in eutrophication in a system where naturally occurring hypoxia overlaps with anthropogenic hypoxia. Biogeochemical investigations reveal that oxygen intrusions have a strong effect on the microbially mediated redox cycling of elements. Observations and modeling studies of the sediments demonstrate the effect of seasonally changing oxygen conditions on benthic mineralization pathways and fluxes. Data quality and access are crucial in hypoxia research. Technical issues are therefore also addressed, including the availability of suitable sensor technology to resolve the gradual changes in bottom-water oxygen in marine systems that can be expected as a result of climate change. Using cabled observatories as examples, we show how the benefit of continuous oxygen monitoring can be maximized by adopting proper quality control. Finally, we discuss strategies for state-of-the-art data archiving and dissemination in compliance with global standards, and how ocean observations can contribute to global earth observation attempts.