528 Projects, page 1 of 106
Moore’s law has enabled the $4 trillion worldwide IT industry to nearly double the performance and functionality of digital electronics roughly every two years within a fixed cost and area. However, the International Semiconductor Technology Blueprint (ITRS) predicts that the technological underpinnings for Moore’s law will end by 2025. IRTS points out that two-dimensional (2D) materials will bring new opportunities for the Post-Moore Era, especially for the CMOS technology beyond 5 nm node. However, very few 2D materials based electronic products are available commercially over the decades of study. With the scaling-down of the electronic devices, it is urgent for academia and industry to seek ways to integrate 2D materials in practical and commercial electronic devices. Introducing 2D materials in the structure of commercial electronic devices is challenging due to their complex synthesis and manipulation. The 2D-HETERO project will explore large wafer-scale (from 2-inch to 300 mm) and uniform growth of different 2D materials by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Van der Waals heterostructures based on different 2D materials will be developed by stacking 2D materials through the direct growth or through clean and large wafer-scale transfer methods. The developed high quality and wafer-scale van der Waals heterostructures will be integrated in different nanoelectronics (mainly field effect transistors), with the goal of enhancing the device performance, yield and uniformity. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines materials science, physics, electrical engineering, industry-relevant nanofabrication and characterization, 2D-HETERO will pave the way to industrialize 2D materials based nanoelectronics. The combination of learning through research and a comprehensive training plan, including both scientific and technological as well as soft skills, will strongly enhance the profile of the applicant and provide a boost for her future scientific career.
Fluorescent microscopy is an indispensable tool in biology and medicine that has fueled many breakthroughs in a wide set of sub-domains. Recently the world of microscopy has witnessed a true revolution in terms of increased resolution of fluorescent imaging techniques. To break the intrinsic diffraction limit of the conventional microscope, several advanced super-resolution techniques were developed, some of which have even been awarded with the Nobel Prize in 2014. High resolution microscopy is also responsible for the spectacular cost reduction of DNA sequencing during the last decade. Yet, these techniques remain largely locked-up in specialized laboratories as they require bulky, expensive instrumentation and highly skilled operators. The next big push in microscopy with a large societal impact will come from extremely compact and robust optical systems that will make high-resolution (fluorescence) microscopy highly accessible, enabling both cellular diagnostics at the point of care and the development of compact, cost-effective DNA sequencing instruments, facilitating early diagnosis of cancer and other genomic disorders. IROCSIM will facilitate this next breakthrough by introducing a novel high-resolution imaging platform based entirely on an intimate marriage of active on-chip photonics and CMOS image sensors. This concept will completely eliminate the necessity of standard free-space optical components by integrating specially designed structured optical illumination, illumination modulation, an excitation filter and an image sensor in a single chip. The resulting platform will enable high resolution, fast, robust, zero-maintenance, and inexpensive microscopy with applications reaching from cellomics to DNA sequencing, proteomics, and highly parallelized optical biosensors.
Topological materials (TM) show fascinating properties such as small bulk bandgaps and robust surface states with Dirac dispersion, Floquet-Bloch states and spin-momentum locking. Their topological nature means these states are resistant to change, and thus stable to temperature fluctuations and physical distortion, features that could make them useful in quantum computers and ultrafast electronic devices. In order to reap the full benefits of TM and tailor their properties, understanding of the phenomena related to electron-electron, electron-spin and electron-phonon interactions, occurring on a femto- to attosecond timescale, is required. Ultrafast Time- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) is the expertise of the experienced researcher (ER) and is the technique that will be implemented in this work. It will be employed for investigating novel industry-grade TM that are developed in parallel research activities at the host IMEC in Leuven, Belgium. State-of-the-art attosecond high harmonic generation laser light coupled with a powerful imaging electron spectrometer will be employed in ultrafast pump–probe experiments to disentangle all coupled interactions between the charge, spin, lattice and electronic degrees of freedom of novel TM. The researcher’s academic background in ultrafast laser spectroscopy perfectly complements research conducted at the host IMEC, one of largest independent R&D centers worldwide in the field of nanoelectronics delivering industry-relevant technology solutions by leveraging its global industrial partner network. AttoPES will take attosecond science to the next level and contribute to accelerate the development of new TM complement for nanoelectronics. It will benefit from the extensive expertise available in IMEC’s groups and enable the ER to diversify his competences, creativity and innovation potential to strengthen his profile as a time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy top-class researcher
A smart contact lens is a device in direct contact with the eye, having integrated electronic functionalities in order to improve the well-being of the user. In that respect, these devices are envisaged to address diverse complex aspects, such as providing augmented reality, performing biomedical sensing and correcting or improving vision. For the first two application areas, possible approaches have already been demonstrated. However, the use of smart contact lenses to correct vision has only been recently proposed through the help of integrated liquid crystal (LC) cells. The integration of these LC cells in a contact lens is in particular appealing for ophthalmological disorders like iris perforation and presbyopia; the latter alone affecting more than 1 billion people. The STRETCHLENS platform envisages the hybrid integration of electro-optic capabilities (e.g. LC cells), RF transmission (e.g. antenna, ultra-thin Si chip - UTC), specific biomarker sensing (e.g. to identify some types of cancer cells) and thin-film based stretchable electrical interconnections. The platform, besides being stretchable due to the spherical shape of eye and manipulations during insertion/extraction of the lens, will incorporate novel 3-D electrical interconnections which will allow for multilayer metallization to integrate UTC’s, minimizing surface area and greatly improving miniaturization. Furthermore, the project will develop new knowledge through technological advancement and models of adhesion/cohesion at the interface of hard/soft composites, in order to predict delamination failures and optimize assemblies through design. The completion and development of such highly integrated stretchable systems will open up diverse research opportunities in the fields of biomaterial science, stretchable micromechanics, and autonomous biomedical and conformal electronics smart systems.
The sensitivity of the next-generation gravitational-wave detectors (GWD) are critically limited by the quantum fluctuations of light. The major sources of such noises are shot noise and optomechanical back action noise (BAN). The improvement of sensitivity can be achieved by back-action evading (BAE) measurements, which allows overcoming the standard quantum limit. By trading off between shot and BAN, recently a promising scheme has been proposed which involves another auxiliary system, consisting of an atomic spin ensemble with negative effective mass that can suppress both the noises. The measurement is performed by two entangled beams of light probing the GWD and the spin ensemble. However, the approach exhibits three major implementational issues to focus on, which I have discovered by recent calculations. Firstly, I study how the sensitivity of the GWD is dependent and what the constraints introduced by the entanglement measures between subsystems. Secondly, I come with a novel approach for the BAE by using a nuclear singlet state of carbon in diamond which works at very low NMR frequencies and bandwidth aiming to avoid the discrepancies of the match between the frequencies and linewidths of the spin and the mechanical oscillators. In this aspect, I propose using a novel type readout of electron spin of NV centers, used as a non-perturbing ancilla of the nuclear spin-singlet. Finally, based on the parameters obtained from ongoing E-Test project, where a low thermal noise mechanical oscillator is being built up, I will theoretically investigate if the nuclear singlet state can match the frequency and bandwidth of rational parameters of the oscillator and whether it can be implemented for the BAE measurement. I will study the role played by the input squeezing parameters, and how to engineer the frequency range of noise suppression of the output. The proposal entitles advanced hands-on training on experimental setups and profounding my background in GWD.