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Country: Italy
385 Projects, page 1 of 77
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 795838
    Overall Budget: 180,277 EURFunder Contribution: 180,277 EUR

    The aim of this proposal is to study the transition between the scalar an vectorial regimes of light-matter interactions and show that its knowledge can be used to create a chirality-discriminating device. For that, the scalar-vectorial transition will be studied for three conceptually different nanostructures. The study will be carried out with a technique developed by the ER: vortex beam-induced circular dichroism. The findings of the study will be given by means of three look-up-tables, one for each kind of nanostructure. These look-up-tables will allow any light-scientist working with similar nanostructures to identify the regime (scalar/vectorial) in which their light-matter interactions are taking place. The results of this project will improve our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions. This knowledge will add a new dimension into the characterization of complex 2D and 3D nanostructures. To show the potential of this characterization, at the end of the project we will use the look-up-table of a 3D plasmonic vortex to design a device that efficiently discriminates the chirality of molecules. The project has all the ideal elements to fulfill its goals. On one hand, the ER is already a scientific expert in light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. On the other hand, the Plasmon Nanotechnologies group at IIT, with its world-class laboratories and clean rooms provides an extraordinary scientific environment for the ER to develop his career path. In particular, it is expected that the ER learns many different nanofabrication techniques. Thus, thanks to this action, the ER will become a preeminent scientist with a unique set of skills combining nanofabrication, optical manipulation/measurements and simulations/theoretical work. This will place him in an advantageous position to become a world leader in nano-optics. The supervision and expertise of Dr. De Angelis will ensure that these goals are reached.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101109662
    Funder Contribution: 297,164 EUR

    The discovery of superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene in 2018 gave rise to twistronics. Twistronics is the study of how the reciprocal angle between layers of two-dimensional materials can modify their properties. Twisted structures present a Moiré lattice and exhibit very different electronic behavior, from non-conductive to superconductive, which depends significantly on the angle between the layers. To date, several techniques have been developed to fabricate layered heterostructures with controlled rotation between the layers, but the Moiré patterns have largely been static. Recent works have demonstrated the tuning of Moiré patterns by using the atomic force microscopy technique to rotate adjacent layers, allowing to study the evolution of properties as the twist angle varies. Dynamic control of rotatable heterostructures will provide a relatively simple platform for exploring exotic quantum effects. Thanks to the observation of these phenomena, a new playground will be created with disruptive technological repercussions, from quantum computing to optoelectronics. In 2DTWIST, I will develop a new technique that allows active, dynamic, and automated control of Moiré geometry in 2D heterostructures in a single device, allowing more precise positioning and in-situ twist of adjacent layers, by electrostatic actuation. Thanks to this approach it will be possible to explore how emergent properties depend on Moiré geometry and to achieve controlled and uniform properties within a single device.

  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 677683
    Overall Budget: 1,996,250 EURFunder Contribution: 1,996,250 EUR

    A primary goal of experimental neuroscience is to dissect the neural microcircuitry underlying brain function, ultimately to link specific neural circuits to behavior. There is widespread agreement that innovative new research tools are required to better understand the incredible structural and functional complexity of the brain. To this aim, optical techniques based on genetically encoded neural activity indicators and actuators have represented a revolution for experimental neuroscience, allowing genetic targeting of specific classes of neurons and brain circuits. However, for optical approaches to reach their full potential, we need new generations of devices better able to interface with the extreme complexity and diversity of brain topology and connectivity. This project aspires to develop innovative technologies for multipoint optical neural interfacing with the mammalian brain in vivo. The limitations of the current state-of-the-art will be surmounted by developing a radically new approach for modal multiplexing and de-multiplexing of light into a single, thin, minimally invasive tapered optical fiber serving as a carrier for multipoint signals to and from the brain. This will be achieved through nano- and micro-structuring of the taper edge, capitalizing on the photonic properties of the tapered waveguide to precisely control light delivery and collection in vivo. This general approach will propel the development of innovative new nano- and micro-photonic devices for studying the living brain. The main objectives of the proposals are: 1) Development of minimally invasive technologies for versatile, user-defined optogenetic control over deep brain regions; 2) Development of fully integrated high signal-to- noise-ratio optrodes; 3) Development of minimally invasive technologies for multi-point in vivo all-optical “electrophysiology” through a single waveguide; 4) Development of new optical methodologies for dissecting brain circuitry at small and large scale

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 659227
    Overall Budget: 168,277 EURFunder Contribution: 168,277 EUR

    Brain functions likely emerge from the concerted, context-dependent operations of its microscopic and macroscopic networks. Therefore, the organization and operational principles of such complex systems may be best investigated by using multi-modal approaches, including concurrent measurements of neural activity on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Performing and interpreting such multi-scale measures, though, presents enormous challenges for both experimental and mathematical neuroscientists. Existing analysis methods, however, make limited use of newly acquired concurrent multi-scale information. To dramatically advance analysis methods for these data, I propose a novel multi-scale model that bridges the gap between single cell statistics and neural mass signals. The model describes mixed discrete statistics, covering single cell and small population spike trains, as well as continuous statistics, such as those describing mesoscopic and macroscopic measures of mass neural activity in neuroimaging experiments. These elements are combined by means of copulas, describing multivariate interactions within and between scales of activity. I will extend this method to the level of efficient applicability and, in the course of a secondment with Prof. Logothetis at the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, exploit the technique to solve current problems of multi-scale analysis of interactions between cortical and subcortical brain areas. The new mathematical approach will lead to a set of new tools that I will disseminate in an Open Source format for maximal impact, and will be widely applicable to multi-modal recordings in animals and humans, in both research and clinical settings. My own application of this method to multi-modal datasets will establish a deeper general understanding of the mechanisms of large-scale communication among brain areas, with particular emphasis on the principles of communication among networks involved in the formation of declarative memory.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 616213
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