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Leiden University

Leiden University

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557 Projects, page 1 of 112
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 278594
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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 798392
    Overall Budget: 165,599 EURFunder Contribution: 165,599 EUR

    Foreign fighters pose a serious threat to Europe. Western intelligence agencies believe that approximately 400 foreign fighters have returned to the EU from Syria and Iraq, and that at least 250 radicalized individuals have been smuggled to Europe from 2014 until 2016. The major hotbeds of foreign fighters smuggling and recruitment are located in Europe itself, in Bosnia and Kosovo, both of which underwent civil wars that featured foreign fighters. We know little about how foreign fighters behave in the aftermath of such civil wars: why some continue fighting in other wars while others go back to civilian life. This is an unfortunate shortcoming because numerous studies have shown that some foreign fighters have demobilized in the aftermath of wars in Afghanistan and Bosnia, while others left for Chechnya, Iraq and Syria to continue jihad. Those who continued fighting built networks with terrorists who are responsible for recent attacks in Europe. It is, therefore, imperative to understand these dynamics in order to make sound decisions that can prevent terrorism in Europe. This project will remedy this shortcoming by pursuing three goals. First, the project will adopt a fresh theoretical framework for the study of foreign fighters. Drawing on organizational theory, career transition and political violence literature, the project aims to explain post-war pathways of foreign fighters as a function of their role in previous war(s). Such an approach goes beyond standard focus on motivations and will help elicit why foreign fighters demobilize or turn violent in a long-term perspective. Second, the project will obtain new empirical insights into how foreign fighters pursued different paths in two similar, post-conflict contexts (Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo). The third objective of the project is to develop a set of policy recommendations that will assist future policy makers in dealing with returning foreign fighters.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 312306
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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 622255
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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 793936
    Overall Budget: 165,599 EURFunder Contribution: 165,599 EUR

    BTBnano will use state of the art knowledge and techniques to quantify single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and gold ENMs in cells and tissues. The objectives are to: (1) systematically quantify bioaccumulation and biodistribution of SWCNTs (as a function of size) and Au ENMs (as a function of size, shape and surface coating) in Daphnia magna and Danio rerio at chronic exposure conditions, (2) study the influence of particle size, shape and surface coating of Au ENMs and size of SWCNTs on their trophic transfer along an aquatic food chain, and (3) study the potential for biomagnification of SWCNTs and Au ENMs in the food chain when mass and particle number concentration are considered as dose metrics and develop a model for predicting biomagnification of ENMs based on the proper dose metric. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Au ENMs will be quantified by measuring mass and particle number concentration using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectroscopy (MS) and single particle (sp)-ICP-MS. (sp)-ICP-MS will also be used to differentiate between ionic and particulate bioaccumulation of Au ENMs. Laser ablation-ICP-MS will be used to in situ quantify cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the intracellular distribution of Au ENMs. Combination of thermogravimetric analyser with fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry will be optimized for quantification of SWCNTs in tissues. The novelty of the project is in developing approaches for quantification of carbon-based and metal-based ENMs in biological matrices. BTBnano includes both training me in new advanced techniques and transferable skills and the transfer of knowledge to the host institution. Results have the potential capacity to support the ENM risk assessment and provide room for further studies in nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. This project is in line with the EU policy to protect the environment and to minimise risks to climate, human health and biodiversity.

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