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York University

Country: Canada

York University

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8 Projects, page 1 of 2
  • Funder: NSF Project Code: 9596156
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101055397
    Overall Budget: 2,332,180 EURFunder Contribution: 2,332,180 EUR

    JOINEDUPJUSTICE develops parameters for a coordinated system of global justice at the domestic level. While the project’s focus is on international criminal law (ICL), international refugee law (IRL) is the starting point; it is the metaphorical canary in the coal mine that flags up questions at the heart of ICL. Many of the domestic prosecutions of international crimes (crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide) are asylum related. This comes with problems. First, article 1F(a) of the Refugee Convention, (exclusion clause), stipulates that those who are suspected of having committed international crimes are undeserving of protection and should be prosecuted. There is no uniform understanding of ‘undeserving’. At the same time, ICL lacks an overarching policy of who is 'deserving' of prosecution. Many excluded asylum claimants remain unprosecuted and exist in a legal limbo. Second, asylum related prosecutions have a distorting effect. It comes with a focus on low-level and ‘low cost’ defendants (from weak countries). Third, it hampers developing a long-term approach to ICL enforcement. The project consists of 5 work packages and 9 subprojects: (i) through empirical research in 8 focus countries and comprehensive case-analysis it maps who is deserving of prosecution whilst scrutinizing the ‘enemy of mankind’ narrative, ‘no safe haven’ and ‘end to impunity’ goals, (ii) it clarifies the scope of ‘undeserving’ and draws the line between criminal complicity and non-criminal association, addressing the ICL-IRL mismatch that leaves many in limbo, (iii) it proposes a system of ‘jurisdiction designation’ based on subsidiarity and burden-sharing plus a settlement proposal premised on a ‘right to start again’, (iv) allows for policy integration, (v) and synthesises findings into an account of coordinated global criminal justice. The project’s ambition, scope and methodology will lead to a step change in international criminal justice where the future is domestic.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101082451
    Overall Budget: 1,148,000 EURFunder Contribution: 1,148,000 EUR

    Studying the climate on Mars has been a topic for scientific curiosity since long time already. As on Earth, the composition of the Martian atmosphere is a key factor for understanding the climate, which is of vital importance to enable future human exploration of the red planet. The use of Atmospheric LIDAR to characterize densities and sizes of aerosol with a height profile, is commonly used on Earth. However Earth instruments are heavy and with high power consumptions, which make them not easily on-boardables for planetary exploration. MiLi proposes to higher the TRL of 3 basic technologies to enable the construction of a lighter and less power miniaturized LIDAR for Mars atmospheric research.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 870845
    Overall Budget: 3,194,780 EURFunder Contribution: 3,030,930 EUR

    ‘Vulnerability’ is increasingly used as a conceptual tool to guide the design and implementation of the global protection regime, as illustrated by the 2016 New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants and the subsequent adoption of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration and of the final draft of the Global Compact on Refugees. However, ‘vulnerability’ lacks a sharp conceptualisation and still needs to be accompanied by a thorough understanding of its concrete meanings, practical consequences and legal implications. This research project aims to address these uncertainties from a critical and comparative perspective, with a focus on forced migration. It will provide a comprehensive analysis of how the ‘protection regimes’ of select countries address the vulnerabilities of ‘protection seekers’. The select countries are in Europe (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Norway), North America (Canada), the Middle East (Lebanon) and Africa (Uganda and South Africa). The analysis adopts two different yet complementary perspectives. First, the way the ‘vulnerabilities’ of the protection seekers are being assessed and addressed by the relevant norms and in the practices of the decision makers will be systematically documented and analysed through a combination of legal and empirical data. Second, the various forms and nature of the concrete experiences of ‘vulnerability’ as they are lived by the protection seekers, including the resilience strategies and how they are being continuously shaped in interactions with the legal frameworks, will be documented and analysed through empirical data collected during fieldwork research. Ultimately, the very notion of ‘vulnerability’ will be questioned and assessed from a critical perspective. An alternative concept, such as ‘precarity’, may be suggested to better reflect the concrete experiences of the protection seekers.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 217624
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