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INRAE

National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
Country: France
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1,498 Projects, page 1 of 300
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 273840
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  • Funder: French National Research Agency (ANR) Project Code: ANR-05-GPLA-0024

    Une augmentation de la quantité de potassium accumulée dans la baie de raisin se traduit par une altération qualitative et quantitative de l'acidité du moût, conduisant à des vins de moindre qualité organoleptique et des problèmes de stabilité et conservation. Le programme proposé a pour objectif d'identifier des transporteurs membranaires impliqués dans l'accumulation de K+ dans la baie de raisin. Notre consortium réunit deux groupes complémentaires travaillant sur le même campus INRA de Montpellier: des (électro)physiologistes ayant conduit un travail pionnier dans le domaine de l'analyse des mécanismes moléculaires de transport de K+ chez la plante modèle Arabidopsis, et des biologistes moléculaires travaillant sur la vigne et les sciences de l'oenologie. Le programme cible les canaux potassiques de la famille Shaker, qui constituent des conductances potassiques majeures de la membrane cellulaire impliquées dans des flux massifs, e.g. dans le prélèvement à partir du sol et les transports à longue distance dans le xylème et le phloème. La famille Shaker compte 9 membres chez Arabidopsis. A l'aide d'oligonucléotides dégénérés, nous avons identifié 9 séquences différentes de canaux K+ chez la vigne. L'objectif est maintenant de déterminer les rôles que ces canaux jouent dans la plante, en commençant par des canaux connus pour participer à l'absorption et les transports à longue distance chez Arabidopsis (AKT1, AtKC1, SKOR, AKT2 et KAT2). Les recherches intégreront (i) des études fonctionnelles (électrophysiologie en système hétérologue afin de préciser le type d'acivité des canaux, e.g. influx ou efflux), (ii) l'analyse spatio-temporelle des patrons d'expression (par Q RT-PCR et gène rapporteur GUS) sous diverses conditions environnementales (disponibilité de K+ et stress hydrique) au cours du développement de la baie, (iii) la localisation subcellulaire des canaux (à l'aide de fusions avec la GFP), et (iv) l'analyse phénotypique (teneurs en K+, pH et contenus en acides organiques de la baie) de plantes transgéniques sur-exprimant des canaux de type sauvage ou de type mutant dominant négatif après mutagénèse dans le domaine pore.

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  • Funder: French National Research Agency (ANR) Project Code: ANR-06-GPLA-0009

    Improvement of bread wheat quality and yield in the context of sustainable agriculture has to_x000D_ be achieved to meet human needs in the next decades. Significant advances in gene discovery_x000D_ and in the management and exploitation of genetic resources are needed now to face this_x000D_ challenge. Despite significant advances in wheat genomics in the past years (BAC library_x000D_ construction, increased marker number, positional cloning of the first genes …), gene isolation_x000D_ remains time consuming and labor intensive and very little is known about the structure and_x000D_ function of the wheat genome. The project submitted here, which is performed in coordination_x000D_ with international laboratories, aims at the establishment of the Minimal Tiling Path, the_x000D_ complete sequencing and the analysis of a region of about 20Mb carrying a number of fungal_x000D_ disease resistance genes (against fusarium head blight ,spetoria glume blotch and tritici, as_x000D_ well as rust resistance genes). It is based on the exploitation of a physical map of this_x000D_ chromosome which is the foundation of a large project developed by the PI's laboratory that_x000D_ aims at using chromosome 3B as a model to study the structure, function and evolution of the_x000D_ hexaploid wheat genome. The data generated by this project will allow the identification of all_x000D_ genes in the region and enable the developpment of perfect markers for marker-assisted_x000D_ selection (MAS) of the resistance genes. In addition, it will provide original and new data on_x000D_ the wheat genome structure, function and evolution at a scale never studied in wheat so far._x000D_ Thus, this project will contribute to the isolation of major disease R genes and to a better_x000D_ understanding of the wheat genome as well as to strengthen the leading positions of the PI's_x000D_ laboratory and Genoplante in wheat genomics at the international level.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 249018
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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101059012
    Funder Contribution: 211,755 EUR

    Soils sustain a multitude of functions contributing to the provision of ecosystem services to human society. The quantification of these functions is a key prerequisite to develop sound policy intervention for their protection and enhancement, as well as to recommend adequate soil management practices to land users. In the European Union (EU), however, there is currently limited knowledge of how the supply of soil functions and their interactions differ spatially with land use type, soil characteristics, climate and management. SEQoSOIL will make the first spatially explicit and quantitative evaluation of soil multifunctionality across the countries of the EU. It will explore the current state of soil multifunctionality, but also the potential – that is, the maximum that a soil can offer based on inherent soil indicators not affected by management practices. This project proposes an ambitious and comprehensive work plan divided in four innovation objectives: i) quantify soil functions of importance, ii) their potential and state, iii) identify synergies and trade-offs between them, and iv) map this information across the EU. The functions quantified will be primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon storage and climate regulation, nutrient cycling and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Publicly available datasets on soil, climate and management will be analysed through a combination of well-establish statistical methods and innovative elements in an interdisciplinary approach. The expected results have the capacity to significantly increase our understanding of how the function delivery varies spatially in the EU and which functions to prioritize on different soil and land use types to optimize multifunctionality towards a desired state. SEQoSOIL is timely because it will directly contribute to the implementation of EU environmental policies and management actions such as the Green Deal for Europe and the EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030.

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