This research considers control of systems that contain several dc electric energy sources and an electric ac machine. It proposes utilisation of a multiphase machine (with a multitude of three-phase sub-windings) in such systems, with the idea of enabling arbitrary sharing of the energy between the sub-systems connected to the different sub-windings. The targeted applications are the future electric vehicles (EVs) and dc microgrid interconnection. The said machine is the propulsion motor in the former and the renewable energy generator in the latter case. One way of overcoming the battery size problem in EVs is to design vehicles to use a multitude of different electric energy sources, such as batteries, fuel cells, flywheels, superconducting magnetic energy storage and photo-voltaic systems. If this is to be achieved, a suitable control strategy for the propulsion motor, which would rely on optimal utilisation of these sources, is required. The requirement is that the different sub-windings, connected to the different energy sources, can be controlled independently, so that simultaneous motoring and generating mode of operation of the different sub-windings can be realised. This will enable decoupled power flow control and hence lead to the optimal exploitation of the available energy resources, when observed from the overall system perspective. Independently controllable power sharing will enable transfer of energy from one source in the vehicle to the other in accordance with the external conditions and the driving regime (e.g. solar energy to charge the battery and/or a supercapacitor during vehicle's cruising, a supercapacitor to provide the energy boost during rapid accelerations and decelerations - thus reducing the required size of the battery). Dc microgrids are foreseen as an important component of the future smart power systems. Commonly, microgrids contain a renewable energy generator, such as wind or hydro generator. Similarly to the EV scenario, the interconnection of dc microgrids, which will become possible through utilisation of the independent and decoupled power flow control of the renewable generator's three-phase winding sets, will eliminate the need to utilise additional power electronic converters (as the current state-of-the-art is) for this purpose. Controlled energy sharing enables simple "peak energy shaving" when the energy consumption peaks do not appear simultaneously in the interconnected microgrids. In simple words, using the proposed algorithms, a microgrid with a surplus of the energy may supply other microgirds that need more energy. Apart from power flow control, additional benefits of this solution are potential cost saving and existence of inherent galvanic isolation between different dc sub-systems. The research will develop advanced control techniques for multiphase machines with multiple three-phase windings that will enable arbitrary circulation of the power through the machine's three-phase winding sets. This will be achieved by using two different electric machine modelling approaches. The first will use as the starting point a known approach, while the second one will be based on a new machine model transformation with power sharing coefficients that is to be developed in the project. Both approaches will yield models required to obtain subsequently high quality dynamic performance of the machine when used as a variable speed drive/generator. Once the two different approaches are fully developed and verified through the simulations, the final step will be experimental verification and comparison of the devised control strategies in laboratory conditions.
This project will develop an integrated theoretical and practical foundation for new methods and CAD tools to support the design of various types of systems with mixed synchronous-asynchronous operation. The crucial novelty will be in the use of the Elastic Logic principles when arranging interaction between blocks, partitioning the system into multi-block components ('localities').It will for the first time provide a pragmatic way of automating the design of mixed synchronous-asynchronous systems with varying granularity level, thereby leading to the development and application of systematic optimization techniques to obtain solutions targeted at the key design issues for deep submicron DSM and 3D implementation technologies, such as process variation power dissipation, area and speed. The project will deliver new theoretical models and algorithms for data-flow representation of systems for timing and power elasticity, automated partitioning of globally synchronous systems into subsystems with local synchronism, automated conversion of systems to elastic form and introduction of asynchronous protocols, design of synchronous-asynchronous interfaces and integration of the new methods into an appropriate industrial CAD environment. The new methods will be tested using an advanced case study from the industrial collaborators, using an advanced DSM technology.
The energy market in general, and the wind energy market in particular, are experiencing constant decrease of prices, together with harsher and harsher grid conditions. In order to comply with worldwide environmental policies, revolutionary solutions, such as FASTAP, need to reach the market as soon as possible. The FASTAP project aims at scaling from TRL6 to TRL8 the wind turbine application of a very fast on-load tap changer transformer technology. This solution uses thyristors specially connected to multi-tap transformer windings to provide On-Load Tap Changer capability to a standard wind turbine (WTG) transformer. This technology allows to choose the optimum voltage at which the WTG operates in, not only in steady-state conditions but also for dynamic and transient events. This technology will increase WTGs' electric capabilities in weak grid conditions, enlarge WTGs' Low and High Voltage Ride Through capabilities and allow reducing electrical components oversizing. As an overall, the FASTAP will be able to reduce wind's Leverage Cost of Energy up to 5.5% and will be able to connect to worldwide grids an additional 71.64GW wind capacity. The consortium partners have been working together for the last three years to bring the technology up to TRL6. They cover the whole value chain, which guarantees that the product will reach the market 33 months after the project kicks-off: - INF, the market leader in bipolar high-performance semiconductors, brings the technical know-how and commercial capacity for thyristors-based semiconductors. -SGB, number one medium-sized manufacturer of transformers in Europe, brings the technical know-how and commercial capacity for transformers. -SG, WTG market leader, will be the integrator and validator of the FASTAP product into 5MW platforms. -MU, the most industrially-oriented University in Spain, was the first originator of the FASTAP concept and will bring FASTAP transformer for Wind Turbines.
The semiconductor industry is characterised by complex supply chain structures. A common language and structure has to be developed and enrolled to enable smooth collaboration among different supply chain participants in this B2B (business to business) environment. SC³ relies on enabling a collaboration of industrial as well as academic stakeholders to ensure interoperability among semiconductor companies, and further industrial domains. SC³ implements an industrial reference platform as a de-facto standard (frequently used). This framework acts as a key enabler for realising an agile development - validation - refinement loop of a top-level ontology i.e. Digital Reference (DR). DR comprises a combination of different ontologies of semiconductor supply chains and supply chains containing semiconductors. To that end, the framework will support ontology governance e.g. development, archiving and indexing as well as the validation of high quality and interlinked ontologies and taxonomies. SC³ will incrementally add domain knowledge to the DR; the extended version of DR covers semiconductor domain vocabulary and related sub domains. The platform allows the involvement of all stakeholder groups in a customised fashion and proposes iterative engaging approaches for each community. The DR allows modularly including, developing and extending domain knowledge to provide a connected supply network structure. The project will follow a deliberate piloting methodology in order to deliver the demonstrators needed as proof-of-concept and for evaluation of project’s measurable objectives. SC³ activities will have a strong focus on sustainability and uptake of the project results, this includes on the one hand to keep the established community alive and on the other hand that the semiconductor data documentation, (i.e. the Generic Semiconductor Data Model) will be further developed and maintained even after the project duration.
Cryptology has developed out of mathematics and theoretical computer science and is often discussed in purely theoretical and abstract terms. However cryptographic algorithms are a vital part of all modern communication systems. Clearly, this demands additional practical considerations. This realisation has come slowly but steadily over the last decade and lead to a whole new field in cryptography called side channel analysis. Side channels silently leak information about confidential data (e.g. cryptographic keys, user data, etc.) and are hence a serious threat to the trustworthiness of information systems. This fellowship intends to establish a centre of excellence, in which we aim to scrutinize the theory of side channels, the methods used to analyse and exploit them, and the impact of such information leakage on systems used by the wider public.