Powered by OpenAIRE graph
Found an issue? Give us feedback

JIC

John Innes Centre
Country: United Kingdom
Funder
Top 100 values are shown in the filters
Results number
arrow_drop_down
854 Projects, page 1 of 171
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BBS/E/J/000CA548
    Funder Contribution: 119,122 GBP

    The project is a collaboration between three labs in the UK (JIC), France (INRA Versailles) and Germany (Univ. Potsdam). The overall objective of the collaboration is to conduct a multidisciplinary approach to understand the functions of genes in seed development. Four species will be studied: Capsella and Arabidopsis to link depth of knowledge to extensive developmental variation, and B. napus and Camelina, an established and an emerging oilseed crop. The central objective of the UK part of the project is to use a set of diverse oilseed rape lines for identifying genetic variation and potential causal genes for a variety of phenotypes relevant to yield. The specific objectives are to: 1. Use associative transcriptomics to identify genetic variation influencing seed size, seed number, pod number and pod length in 90 B. napus lines in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons; 2. Compare the potential causal genes in B. napus to the functions of candidate genes in Arabidopsis; 3. Conduct RNAseq analysis of seed gene expression in B. napus lines and use this to supplement the association studies; 4. Contribute to multi-scale phenotying of B. napus seed development, using protein composition, lipid and sugar levels from 90 varieties to complement the association studies; 5. Contribute to studies of variation in expression profiles of key regulatory genes in 90 varieties.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BB/L010305/1
    Funder Contribution: 617,951 GBP

    Legume plants have the special ability to interact with soil bacteria called rhizobia. Rhizobia colonise plant roots and are taken up inside the cells of special outgrowths called nodules. Inside the nodule, the rhizobia use sugars provided by the plant as energy to convert nitrogen gas from the air into ammonia which is a form of nitrogen the plants can use as fertilizer (fixed nitrogen). This process of bacterial colonization, nodule formation and nitrogen fixation is called nodulation. Since plants cannot fix nitrogen themselves, and the availability of fixed nitrogen is a major limiting factor for plant growth, nodulation provides a big advantage for legumes in nitrogen poor soils. In agricultural settings this means that legumes like pea, soybean or lucerne require less artificial fertilizer. Another advantage is that legumes leave more nitrogen in the soil than other crops, a quality which has led to legumes having a special role in agriculture as they can be grown in rotation with non-legume plants like wheat or vegetable crops in order to provide these crops with extra nitrogen. In fact, legumes sometimes are grown solely for the purpose of increasing the levels of fixed nitrogen in the soil for the next crop as a type of 'green manure'. Aside from the benefits to soil fertility, legume seed crops such as soybean, field bean, and navy bean are valuable as a protein source and are grown throughout the world. Either as a rotation crop or as a green manure legumes require less industrial fertilizer inputs which are expensive and harmful to the environment, which makes legumes a key component of sustainable agriculture. Nitrogen fixation of legumes in agricultural systems is sometimes very low. The main reason for this is that high levels of soil nitrogen inhibits nodulation. Legumes have evolved to utilize fixed nitrogen available from the soil (such as ammonia or nitrate) rather than fix nitrogen by nodulation that would require using its own sugars. In order for the legume plant to choose between using fixed nitrogen from the soil or to fix nitrogen by nodulating it must be able to sense soil nitrogen. The aim of this study is to identify the legume genes involved in the sensing of external soil nitrogen. We hypothesize that if we create legume plants with a reduced ability to sense fixed nitrogen they will continue to nodulate and fix nitrogen even when soil nitrogen is abundant. A gene called NRT1.1 was identified as being important for nitrogen in the non-legume plant Arabidopsis. Interestingly, legumes appear to have multiple copies of NRT1.1. It is possible that since legumes nodulate and produce their own fixed nitrogen they may have developed a more sophisticated nitrogen sensing system. To investigate this possibility, we will test each of the legume NRT1.1 genes to see if they are important for sensing fixed nitrogen. To do this we will identify and characterize legume mutants that have non-functional NRT1.1 genes. In particular, we will test these mutants to see if they are still able to nodulate and fix nitrogen even when there are high levels of fixed nitrogen available. In addition, we will biochemically characterize these mutants and the NRT1.1 proteins. Finally, we will use a similar strategy in an important UK crop, peas. Peas that can nodulate and fix nitrogen in nitrogen rich soils could be grown in rotation with crops such as wheat to lessen the need for industrial nitrogen inputs thereby lowering costs and decreasing environmental damage.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BBS/E/J/000C0647
    Funder Contribution: 1,185,490 GBP

    The details of the pathways and surface enzymology of polyglucan biosynthesis in plants and microbes are surprisingly poorly understood despite their importance in biology and industry. The approach of our multidisciplinary research is the study of the enzymes that are involved in these systems using biochemical and biophysical techniques along with synthetic chemistry and complementary molecular biology studies addressing their physiological functions. Specifically, we are studying developmentally regulated glycogen metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor, surface enzymology of relevance to the developing starch granule in plants and bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis (e.g. dextran). These systems relate to antimicrobial agents and the engineering of novel starches and glucans.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BBS/E/J/000CA282
    Funder Contribution: 131,272 GBP

    Nodperception: Project Outline Calcium signalling plays a critical role in transmission of Nod-factor induced signalling. This project will involve analysis of different types of calcium signalling and how they might influence the induction of gene expression and the initiation of infection thread formation. Part of the project will address calcium signalling in novel infection mutants using both micro-injected dyes and available transgenic calcium reporter lines of Medicago truncatula. Metbolic inhibitors will be also be used to try to define what types of signalling events occur upstream of Nod-factor-indiuced calcium spiking, and gene targeted mutations affecting predicted calcium channels and pores will be screened using TILLING with a new fast-neutron mutagenised population of M. truncatula mutants that are likely to have gene deletions.

    more_vert
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: BB/T004290/1
    Funder Contribution: 203,910 GBP

    Wheat yield gains have averaged an annualized 1.14% increase worldwide from 1991 to 2012. However, considering FAO projections that indicate the world population will exceed 9 billion in 2050, this incremental development in a basic foodstuff needs to improve dramatically. As part of the effort to improve wheat yields the International Wheat Yield Partnership has the goal of increasing wheat yields by 50% in the next 20 years. Two key protagonists in this global wheat breeding effort are Canada and the UK where research institutions are working to achieve this goal. It is recognised that this will require not only the development of new ideas and innovative approaches to discover new alleles and traits that underlie yield gains, but also dedicated breeding efforts to incorporate the traits into elite genetic backgrounds. Yield gains are not realized until they are delivered as finished cultivars into the hands of growers. Wheat breeding programmes driven by traditional, phenotypic, selection accumulate favourable alleles and develop cultivars that result in high and stable yield in the given target environment. In wheat breeding, the necessity to develop cultivars with very specific end use quality targets increases the tendency to limit breeding work to elite-by-elite crossing, which consequently leads to a narrowing of the genetic background. Except for disease resistance alleles, which are often specifically targeted for the development of new cultivars, relatively little effort is typically incurred to broaden the genetic diversity of breeding programmes in order to discover under-utilized or novel alleles for agronomic performance and yield. This project proposes to share germplasm with a range of yield potentials and test cross diverse wheat growing environments. By sharing genetic improvements between diverse breeding programmes, a foundation for the delivery of increased wheat yield in the form of new spring and winter wheat cultivars can be laid. Improvements in wheat yields can provide considerable return on investment for wheat producers. For example, a 5% increase in Canadian wheat production would have a farm gate value of approximately $300 million dollars ($CDN) for the Canadian economy.

    more_vert
Powered by OpenAIRE graph
Found an issue? Give us feedback

Do the share buttons not appear? Please make sure, any blocking addon is disabled, and then reload the page.

Content report
No reports available
Funder report
No option selected
arrow_drop_down

Do you wish to download a CSV file? Note that this process may take a while.

There was an error in csv downloading. Please try again later.