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University of Paris-Saclay

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58 Projects, page 1 of 12
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101110703
    Funder Contribution: 211,755 EUR

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the production of food crops and the demand for P fertilizer is increasing worldwide. Earth's P is being depleted at an alarming rate urging the need for alternative strategies in order to maximize the availability of agronomic resources, optimize crop yields and guarantee food security with less impact on our environment. White lupin is the only crop that can form specific organs constituted by numerous short lateral roots, the so-called cluster roots (CRs), as an adaptation to low P availability in the soil, allowing an efficient acquisition of this nutrient, which is fundamental for plant growth and development. Remarkable advances have been made over the last years in identifying numerous genes involved in different facets of root adaptation to the environment and is known that microRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression during development and in response to environmental cues. The main objective of LUMIROOT is to elucidate the miRNA-dependent mechanisms regulating the formation of CRs in white lupin contributing to optimize plant resource acquisition based on the already proven role of miRNAs in root developmental processes. I will focus on these networks based not only on their functional importance but also on the broader interest of regulatory pathways controlling the development CRs. I will in deep functionally analyze the role miR396/target genes modules in CR development and reveal novel miRNA regulatory networks acting in CR formation and function. I also aim to develop miRNA-based nanoparticles to modulate in vivo miR396 action, as well as other regulatory miRNA/target networks to assess its potential to improve relevant agronomic traits such as CRs formation. LUMIROOT project will allow opening the way to crop improvement reducing the need for P fertilizers and will help to select regulatory networks with potential use in the improvement of relevant agronomic traits.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101127936
    Funder Contribution: 3,024,000 EUR

    Artificial intelligence is a pervasive and ubiquitous technology, with fast developments and ever-growing applicative horizons. While achieving outstanding results, estimating the decisions’ reliability is a critical and open problem with strategic outcomes: from estimating uncertainty in numerical simulations to harnessing system reactions in open environments. Uncertainties both in input data and model output should be handled to increase the confidence in AI applications : physics-based models, edge computing, data frugal approaches, interactions with humans, with many applications in energy, climate change adaptation, bioinformatics, engineering, fundamental and material science,… DeMythif.IA is an international doctoral training and career development program driven by UPSaclay, and its 19 research and industrial partners supported by thematic networks to enhance the scientific excellence and career development of 30 PhD fellows in Greater Paris area. The program focuses on 3 interdisciplinary scientific axes 1) handling uncertainties on data and model and quantifying uncertainties on the predictions, 2) managing explainability, so that the trained model outcome can be trusted and explained to a human, and 3) encouraging frugality, both in term of labelled data and energy for training, so that real-life applications (as opposed to proofs-of-concept) emerge. The fellows will benefit from world-class scientific programs, quality supervision and industrial secondments and also from personalized career development activities and transferable skills training (interpersonal, communication, digital, entrepreneurship, open science, gender, ethics). DeMythif.AI’s strength lies in its diversity permitting to fine-tune the content offered to the fellows from a professional perspective. It ultimately allows concretizing dynamic research collaborations and developing strong synergies around the academic and industrial community, opening new perspectives beyond the project.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101031812
    Overall Budget: 196,708 EURFunder Contribution: 196,708 EUR

    Gypsum-based stromatolites (GS) make excellent paradigms for the investigation of fine-scale mineral-microbial interactions and for the detection of life remnants on gypsiferous deposits of Earth and Mars. Yet, they have been largely overlooked compared to the carbonate microbialites. To date we do not know: i) what is their exact mineralogy, ii) which microbial communities are associated to these structures, iii) what is the exact role of microbes and related bioproducts (e.g., exopolymeric substances) in mineral precipitation and stromatolite construction, and iv) which biosignatures may be preserved in GS. NanoBioS aims to address this knowledge gap by employing an interdisciplinary approach to study newly discovered gypsum-based stromatolites from Lake Bakili (Danakil Depression, Ethiopia) from a combined microbiology and mineralogy perspective. The Danakil Depression and the difficult-to-access and so-far unexplored Lake Bakili constitute a unique, natural laboratory for the study of both living and fossil gypsum microbialites, and a terrestrial Martian analogue-site. Besides the possibility to discover novel microbial lineages/metabolisms, we will attempt to identify characteristic associations of microbial groups with mineral assemblages and look for biosignatures. The overarching goal of NanoBioS is to gain a deeper understanding of the microbial influence on Ca-sulfate precipitation, as well as, to develop insights for distinguishing fossil life remnants from inorganic biomorphs on Earth and Martian chemical sediments. The host and secondment host laboratories that have advanced the subject of geomicrobiology of microbialites, will offer me intensive training in cutting-edge molecular biology and mineralogic tools, complementary to my so far geochemical expertise, aside to other, transferable skills. Overall, the development of NanoBioS will be career-defining and it will transform me in an independent, highly competitive, early stage bio-geo-chemist.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101087572
    Overall Budget: 1,691,880 EURFunder Contribution: 1,691,880 EUR

    The main purpose of this proposal is to explore random planar metrics. Two canonical models of random continuum surfaces have been introduced in the past decade, namely the Brownian sphere obtained as the scaling limit of uniform random planar triangulations, and the Liouville Quantum Gravity metric obtained formally from the exponential of the Gaussian free field on the sphere. Our objective is to broaden our understanding of random planar metrics to the case of metrics with “holes” or “hubs”, and to the causal (when a time dimension is singled out) paradigm. We also plan on studying random maps in high genus and to connect to models of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry such as the Brook–Makover model, random pants decompositions or Weil–Petersson random surfaces. We believe that the tools developed in the context of random planar maps, such as the systematic use of the spatial Markov property, the utilization of random trees to decompose and explore the surfaces, or the fine study of geodesic coalescence can be successfully applied to the aforementioned models. We expect spectacular results and we hope to reinforce the connections between those very active fields of mathematics. This proposal should give rise to exceptionally fruitful interactions between specialists of different domains such as probability theory, two-dimensional hyperbolic geometry, and theoretical physics, as well as mathematicians coming from other areas, in particular from combinatorics. To ensure the best chances of success for the proposed research, we will rely on the unique environment of University Paris-Saclay and neighboring institutions.

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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101097172
    Overall Budget: 1,647,940 EURFunder Contribution: 1,647,940 EUR

    Many physics models are described by waves or more generally dispersive equations (Schrödinger equations) with propagation in a non homogeneous and bounded medium. Toy models (mostly in flat backgrounds) have been developed by mathematicians. However, many questions remain open even on these simplified models in the presence of inhomogeneities and boundaries. In particular, the works of mathematicians in the last decade have allowed to exhibit some pathological behaviours which appear to be quite unstable. A first point in this proposal will be to expand the understanding of the influence of the geometry (inhomogeneities of the media, boundaries) on the behaviour of solutions to dispersive PDE’s. When these behaviours appear to be unstable, a natural question is whether they are actually rare. The last years have seen the emergence of a new point of view on these questions: random data Cauchy theories. The idea behind is that for random initial data, the solution’s behaviours are better than expected (deterministically). The second point of this project is precisely to go further in this direction. After identifying these pathological behaviours, is it possible to show that for almost all initial data, almost all geometries, they do not happen? Understanding how to combine the powerful techniques from micro-local and harmonic analysis with a probabilistic approach in this context should allow a much better understanding of these physically relevant models. Summarising, the purpose of my project is to develop tools and give answers to the following questions in the context of dispersive PDE’s (and to some extent fluids mechanics) Can we understand the influence of the geometric background (and boundaries) on concentration properties and the the behaviour of solutions to dispersive evolution PDE’s? Can we define generic behaviours for solutions to waves and fluids PDE's ? Can we show that some very pathological behaviours (which do happen) are actually very rare?

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